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QUESTIONS ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL NOTES. From what parts of speech are prepositions and conjunctions derived ?What is Horne Tooke's opinion of that?—From what is each of the follow ing words derived, that, if, but, and, because, nor, else, unless, Lest, though, and yet?



INTERJECTIONS are words which express the sudden emotions of the speaker; as, Alas! I fear for life;" “ O death! where is thy sting ?"

Interjections are not so much the signs of thought, as of feeling. Almost any word may be used as an interjection; but when so employed, it is not the representative of a distinct idea. A word which denotes a distinct conception of the mind, must necessarily belong to some other part of speech. They who wish to speak often, or rather, to make noises, when they have no useful information to communicate, are apt to use words very freely in this way; such as the following expressions, la, la me, my, O my, 0 dear, dear me, surprising, aslonishing, and the like.

Interjections not included in the following list, are generally known by their taking an exclaination point after them.

A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL INTERJECTIONS. 1. Of earnestness or grief; as, O! oh! ah! alas ! 2. Contempt; as, Pish! tush! 3. Wonder; as, Heigh! really! strange !


The term INTERJECTION is applied to those inarticulate sounds employed both by men and brutes, not to express distir.ct ideas, but emotions, passions, or feelings. The sounds employed by human beings in groaning, sighing, crying, screaming, shrieking, and laughing, by the dog in darking, growling, and

whining, by the horse in snorting and neighing, by the sheep in bleating, by the cat in mewing, by the dove in cooing, by the duck in quacking, and by the goose in hissing, we sometimes attempt to represent by words; but, as written words are the ocular representatives of articulate sounds, they cannot be made clearly to denote inarticulate or indistinct noises. Such indistinct utterances belong to natural language; but they fall below the bounds of regulated speech. llence, real interjections are not a part of written language,

4. Calling ; as, Hem! ho ! halloo!
5. Disgust or aversion; as, Foh! fy! fudge ! away!
6. Attention ; as, Lo! behold! hark !
7. Requesting silence; as, Hush! hist!
8. Salulation ; as, Welcome! hail! all hail !

Note. We frequently meet with what some call an interjective phrase; sach as, Ungrateful wretch! impudence of hope ! folly in the extreme! what ingratitude ! away with him!

As the interjection is the least important part of speech in the English language, it will require but little attention. You may, however, make yourself well acquainted with what has been said respecting it, and then commit the

SYSTEMATICK ORDER OF PARSING. The order of parsing an INTERJECTION,(is an interjection, and why?

“O virtue! how amiable thou art !" O is an interjection, a word used to express some passion or emotion of the speaker.

The ten parts of speech have now been unfolded and elucidated, although some of them have not been fully explained. Before you proceed any farther, you will please to begin again at the first lecture, and read over, attentively, the whole, observing to parse every example in the exercises systematically. You will then be able to parse the following exercises, which contain all the parts of speech. If you study faithfully six hours in a day, and pursue the directions given, you may become, if not a critical, at least, a good, practical grammarian, in six weeks ; but if you study only three hours in a day, it will take you nearly three months to acquire the same knowledge.

EXERCISES IN PARSING. True cheerfulness makes a man happy in himself, and pro motes the happiness of all around him.

Modesty always appears graceful in youth: it doubles the lustre of every virtue which it seems to hide.

The meaning of those words commonly called interjections, is easily shown by tracing them to their roots.

Pish and pshaw are the Anglo-Saxon paec, paeca ; and are equivalent to truinpery! i. e. tromperie, from tromper.

Fy or fie is the imperative, foe, the past tense, and foh or faugh, the past part. of the Saxon verb fian, to hate,

Lo is the imperative of look. Het is the imperative of healden, to hold, Farewellfare-ivell, is a compound of faran, to go, and the adverb well. It means, to go well.' Welcome-well-come, signifies, it is well that you are comé. Adieu comes from the French a Dieu, to God; incaning, I coinmend Jou le God.

He who, every morning, plans the transactions of the day, and follows out that plan, carries on a thread that will guide hill through the labyrinth of the most busy life.

The king gave me a generous reward for committing that barbarous act; but, alas! I fear the consequence,

E’en now, where Alpine solitudes ascend,
I set me down a pensive hour to spend ;
And, placed on high, above the storm's career,
Look downward where a hundred realms appear :-
Alas! the joys that fortune brings,

Are trifling, and decay;
And those who mind the paltry things,

More trifling still than they. Note. In the second sentence of the foregoing exercises, which is gov erned by the verb to hide, according to RULE 16. He is nom. to carries , who is now to plans. Follows agrees with who understood, and is connected to plans by a'ud; Rule 34. What did the king give ? A reward to me. Then reward is in the obj. case, gov. by give; RULE 20. Me is gov. by to understood; Note 1, RULE 32. The phrase, committing that barbarous act, is gov. by for; Note 2, under Rule 28. Heur is in the obj. casc, gov. by to spend ; RULE 20. Look is connected to set by and ; Rule 34. Joys is nom. to are. That is gov. by brings; Rule 16. Those is nom. to are understood. They is nom. to are understood ; Rule 35.

CASES OF NOUNS. In a former lecture, I promised to give you a more extensive explanation of the cases of nouns; and, as they are, in

many situations, a little difficult to be ascertained, I will now offer somne remarks on this subject. But before you proceed, I wish you to parse all the examples in the exercises just presented, observing to pay particular attention to the remarks in the subjoined Note. Those remarks will assist you much in analyzing.

A noun is sometimes nominative to a verb placed many lines after the noun. You must exercise your judgment in this matter. Look at the sentence in the preceding exercises beginning with, “He who, every morning,' &c. and see if you can.find the verb to which he is nominative. What does he do? He carries on a thread, &c. He, then, is nominative to the verb carries. What does who do? Who plans, and who follows, &c. Theo who is nom. to plans, and who understood, is non inative to follows.

“ A soul without reflection, like a pilo

“ Without inhabitant, to ruin runs.” In order to find the verb to which the noun soul, in this scntence, is the nominative, put the question ; What does a sou. without reflection do? Such a soul runs to ruin, like a pilo

ROM. CAST INDEPENDENT, --ABBOLOTR. 129 without inhabitant.) Thus you discover, that soul is nominative to runs.

When the words of a sentence are arranged according to their natural order, the nominative case, you recollect, is placed before the verb, and the objective, after it ; but when the words of a sentence are transposed ; that is, not arranged according to their natural order, it frequently happens, that the nominative comes after, and the objective, before the verb; especially in poetry, or when a question is asked : as, “Whence arises the misery of the present world ? “What good thing shall I do to inherit eternal life?" Put these expressions in the declarative form, and the nominative will precede, and the objective follow its verb: thus, “ The misery of the present world arises whence; I shall do what good thing to inherit eternal life."

“ Now came still evening on, and twilight gray
“ Had, in her sober livery, all things clad."

“Stern rugged nurse, thy rigid lore

“With patience many a year she boro." What did the evening do? The evening came on.

Gray twi light had clad what? Twilight had clad all things in her sober livery. Evening, then, is nom. to came, and the noun things is in the objective case, and gov. by had clad : RULE 20. What did she bear? She bore thy rigid lore with patience, for, or during, many a year. Hence you find, that lore is in the objective case, and governed by bore, according to RULE 20. Year is gov. by during understood : Rule 32.

A noun is frequently nominative to a verb understood, or in the objective, and governed by a verb understood; as, “ Lo, [there is] the poor Indian! whose untutored mind.") ", the pain [there is ! ] the bliss (there is] in dying !" " All were sunk, but the wakeful nightingale [was not sunk.”] thought as a sage [thinks,] though he felt as a man I feels.] " His hopes, immortal, blow them by, as dust [is blown by.”] Rule 35 applies to these last three examples.

In the next place I will explain several cases of nouns and pronouns which have not yet come under our notice. Sometimes a noun or pronoun may be in the nominative case when it has no verb to agree with it.


Whenever a direct address is made, the person or thing spoken to, is in the noininative case independent; as, James, I desire you to study.

66 He

You notice that, in this expression, I address myself to James, that is, I speak to him; and you observe, too, that there is no ver'), either expressed or implied, to which James can be the nomina. tive ; therefore you know that James is in the nom. case inde. pendent, according to Rule 5. Recollect, that whenerer a noun is of the second person, it is in the nom. case independent; that is, independent of any verb ; as, Selma, thy halls are silent ; Love and meekness, my lord, become a churchman, better thani ambition ; 0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her ehickens under her wings, but ye would not !--For a farther illustration of this case, see Note 2, under the 5th Rule of Syntax.

NOTE. When a pronoun of the second person is in apposition with a noun independent, it is in the same case; as, Thou traitor, I detest thee.

OF THE NOMINATIVE CASE ABSOLUTE. A noun or pronoun placed before a participle, without any verb to agree with it, is in the nominative case absolulc; aş, “The sun being risen, we pursued our journey.)

Sun is here placed before the participle “ being risen," and has no verb to agree with it; therefore it is in the nominative case absolute, according to Rule 6.

Note 1. A noun or pronoun in the nominative case independent, is al ways of the second person; but, in the case absolute, it is generally of the

2. The case absolute is always nominative; the following sentence is therefore incorrect : “Whose top shall tremble, nin descending,” &c.; it should be, he descending.

OF NOUNS IN APPOSITION. Two or more nouns or pronouns signifying the same person or thing, are put, by upposition, in the same case; as, “ Cicero, the great orator, philosopher, and statesman of Rome, was murdered by Anthony

Apposition, in a grammatical sense, means something added, or names added, in order more fully to define or illustrate the sense of the first name mentioned.

You perceive that Cicero, in the preceding example, is morely the proper name of a man; but when I give him the three additional appellations, and call hin a great orator, philosopher, and statesman, you understand what kind of a man he was ; that

third person.

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