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19, by giving nim these three additional names, his character and abilities as a man are more fully made known. And, surely, you cannot be at a loss to know that these four nouns must be in the same casc, for they are all names given to the same person ; therefore, if Cicero was murdered, the orator was murdered, and the philosopher was murdered, and the statesinan was murdered, because they all mean one and the same person..
Nouns and pronouns in the objective case, are frequently in apposition; as, He struck Charles the student. Now it is obvi ous, that, when he struck Charles, he struck the student, because Charles was the student, and tho sludent was Charles ; therefore the noun student is in the objective case, governed by " struck,” and put by apposition with Charles, according to Rule 7.
Please to examine this lecture very attentively. You will then be prepared to parse the following examples coriectly and systematically.
PARSING. “Weep on the rocks of roaring winds, O mard of Inistore.”
Maid is a noun, the name of a person-com. the name of a sort-fem. gender, it denotes a female-second pers. spoken to--sing. num. it implies but one-and in the nominative case independent, because it is addressed, and has no verb to agree with it, according to
Rule 5. When an address is made, the noun dressed, is put in the noninaiive case independent)
“The general being ransomed, the barbarians permitted him to depart."
General is a noun, the name, &c. (parse it in full :)—and in the nominative case absolute, because it is placed before the participle “ being ransomed," and it has no verb to agree with it, agreeably to
RULE 6. A noun or pronoun placed before a participle, and being independent of the rest of the sentence, is in the nominative case absolute.
" Thou man of God, flee to the land of Judah.” Thou is a pronoun, a word used instead of a noun-personal, it personates man"
”-second pers. spoken to-mas. gender, sing. num. because the noun “man” is for which it stands ; Rule 13. (Repeat the Rule.)- Thou is in the nominative case independent, and put by apposition with man, because it signifies the same thing, according to
Rule 7. Two or more nouns, or nouns and pronouns, signi fying the same thing, are put, by apposition, in the same case.
p’ pronoun adMan is in the nominative case independent, according to Rule 5. Flee agrees with thou understood.
“ Lo! Newton, priest of Nature, shines afar,
“ Scans the wide world, and numbers every star." Newton is a noun, (parse it in full,) and in the nominative case to "shines :" RULE 3.
Priest is a noun, (parse it in full,) and in the nom. case, it is the actor and subject of the verb "shines,” and put by apposition with “Newton," because it signifies the same thing, agreeably to Rule 7. (Repeat the Rule.)
EXERCISES IN PARSING. Turn from your
ways, O house of Israel! Ye fields of light, celestial plains, ye scenes divinely fair ! proclaim your Maker's wondrous power. O king ! live for ever.
The murmur of thy streams, O Lora, brings back the memory of the past. The sound of thy woods, Garmallar, is lovely in my ear. Dost thou not behold, Malvina, a rock with its head of heath? Three aged pines bend from its face ; groen is the plain at its feet; there the flower of the mountain grows, and shakes its white head in the breeze.
The General being slain, the army was routed. Commerce having thus got into the legislative body, privilege must be done away. Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitude being in that place. I being in great haste, he consented. The rain having ceased, the dark clouds rolled away. The Son of God, while clothed in flesh, was subject to all the frailties and inconveniences of human nature, sin excepted; (that is, sin being excepted.)
In the days of Joram, king of Israel, flourished the prophet Elisha. Paul the apostle suffered martyrdom. Come, peace of mind, delightful guest! and dwell with me. Friends, Row rans, countrymen, lend me your ears.
Soul of the just, companion of the dead !
And man the hermit sighed, till woman smiled. Note. Those verbs in italicks, in the preceding examples, are all in the imperative mood, and second person, agreeing with thou, ye, or you, understood. House of Israel is a noun of multitude. Was routed and must be done are passive verbs. Art fled is a neuter verb in a passive forn. Clothed is a perfect participle. Til is an adverbial conjunction.
When you shall have analyzed, systematically, every word in the foregoing exercises, you may answer the following
QUESTIONS NOT ANSWERED IN PARSING.
Repeat the list of interjections.-Repeat some interjective phrases.-Repeat the order of parsing an interjection. In order to find the verb to which a noun is nom. what question do you put ?-Give examples.— Is the nominative case ever placed after the verb ?-When ?-Give examples.-Does the objective case ever come before the verb ?--Give examples.-Is a noun ever nom. to a verb understood ?--Give examples.- When is a noun or pronoun in the nom. case independent ?-Give examples.--Are nouns of the second person always in the nom. case independent ?—When a pronoun is put by apposition with a noun independent, in what case is it?-When is a noun or pronoun in the nom. case absolute ?-Give examples. When are nouns or nouns and pronouns put, by apposition, in the same case ?--Give examples.-- In parsing a noun or pronoun in the nom. case independent, what Rule should be applied ?-In parsing the nom. case absolute, what Rule?- What Rule in parsing nouns or pronouns in apposition ?--Do real interjections belong to written language? (Phil. Notes.)-From what are the folowing words derived, pish, fy, lo, halt, farewell, welcome, adicu!
OF THE MOODS AND TENSES OF VERBS.
You have now acquired a general, and, I may say, an extennive, knowledge of nine parts of speech ; but you know but little, as yet, respecting the most important one of all; I mean the VERB. I will, therefore, commence this lecture by givirg you an explanation of the Moods and Tenses of verbs. Have the goodness, however, first to turn back and read over Lecture II. and reflect well upon what is there said respecting the verb; after which I will conduct you so smoothly through the moods and tenses, and the conjugation of verbs, that, instead of finding yourself involved in obscurities and deep intricacies, you will scarcely find an obstruction to impede your progress.
I. OF THE MOODS, The Mood or Mode of a verb means the man ner in which its action, passion, or being, is re presented.
When I wish to assert a thing, positively, I use the declara tive or indicative mode; as, The man walks ; but sometimes the action or occurrence of which I wish to speak, is doubtful, and then I must not declare it positively, but I must adopt another mode of expression ; thus, If the man walk, he will rcfresh himself with the bland breezes. This second mode or manner of representing the action, is called the subjunctive or conditional mode.
Again, we sometimes employ a verb when we do not wish to declare a thing, nor to represent the action in a doubtful or conditional manner; but we wish to coinmand some one to act. We then use the imperative or commanding mode, and say,
sir. And when we do not wish to command a man to act, we sometimes allude to his power or ability to act. This fourth mode of representing action, is called the potential mode;, as, He can walk ; He could walk. The fifth and last mode, called the infinitive or unlimited mode, we employ in expressing action in an unlimited manner ; that is, without confining it, in respect to number and person, to any particular agent, as, To walk, to ride. Thus you perceive, that the mood, mode, or manner of representing the action, passion, or being of a verb, must vary according to the different intentions of the mind.
Were we to assign a particular name to every change in the mode or manner of representing action or being, the number of moods in our language would amount to many hundreds. But this principle of division and arrangement, if followed out in de tail, would lead to great perplexity, without producing any beneficial result. The division of Mr. Harris, in his Hermes, is much more curious than instructive. He has fourteen nioods; his interrogative, optative, hortative, promissive, precaulive, requisitive, enunciative, &c. But as far as philosophical accuracy and the convenience and advantage of the learner are concerned, it is believed that no arrangement is preferable to the following. I am not unaware that plausible objections may be raised against it ; but what arrangement cannot be objected to ?
There are five moods of verbs, the Indicative, the Subjunctive, the Imperative, the Potential, and the Infinitive.
The INDICATIVE Mood simply indicates or declares a thing; as, “He writes :" or it asks a question; as, “ Does he write? Who wrote that ?"
The term indicative, comes from the Latin indico, to declare. Flence, the legitimate province of the indicative mood, is to de clare things, whether positively or negatively; thus, positively, He came with me; negatively, He caine not with me. But in order to avoid a multiplication of moods, we extend its meaning, and use the indicative mood in asking a question ; as, Who came with you?
The subjunctive mood being more analogous to the indicative in conjugation, than any other, it ought to be presented next in order. This mood, however, differs materially from the ndicative in sense ; therefore you ought to make yourself wel acquainted with the nature of the indicative, before you commence with the subjunctive.
The SUBJUNCTIVE Mood expresses action, passion, or being, in a doubtful or conditional inanner : or,
When a verb is preceded by a word that expresses a condition, doubt, motive, wish, or supposition, it is in the SUBJUNCTIVE Mood; as, “If he study, he will improve; I will respect him, though he chide me; He will not be pardoned, unless he repent; Had he been there, he would have ronquered;" (that is, if he had been there.)
The conjunctions if, though, unless, in the preceding examples, express condition, doubt, &c. ; therefore the verbs sludy, chide, repent, and had been, are in the subjunctive mood.
NOTE 1. A verb in this mood is generally attended by another verb in some other mood. You observe, that each of the first three of the preceding examples, contains a verb in the indicative mood, and the fourth, a verb in the potential.
2. Whenever the conjunctions if, though, unless, except, whether, lest, or any others, denote contingency or doubt, the verbs that follow them are in the subjunctive mood; as, “ If he ride out every day, his health will probably improve;" that is, if he shall or should ride out hereafter. But when these conjunctions do not imply doubt, &c. the verbs that follow them are in the indicative, or some other inood; as, “ Though he rides o'it daily, his health is no better.” The conjunctive and indicative forms of this mood, are explained in the conjugation of the verb to love. See page 145.
The IMPERATIVE Mood is used for command ing, exhorting, entreating, or permitting; as,