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“Mercy is the true badge of nobility." Mercy is a noun common, of the neuter gender, third person, singular number, and in the nominative case to “is :" RULE 3. The nominative case governs the verb.

Is is an irregular neuter verb, indicative mood, present tense, third person, singular number, agreeing with “ mercy,” accord ing to Rule 4. The verb must agree, &c.

The is a definite article, belonging to “badge" in the singular number : Rule 2. The definite article the, &c.

True is an adjective in the positive degree, and belongs to the noun “badge" RULE 18. Adjectives belong, &c.

Badge is a noun com. neuter gender, third person, singular number, and in the nominative case after is," and put by apposition with "mercy,” according to RULE 21. The verb to be may have the same case after it as before it.

Of is a preposition, connecting "badge" and "nobility," and showing the relation between them.

Nobility is a noun of multitude, mas. and fem. gender, third person, sing. and in the obj. case, and governed by “of:” Rule 31. Preposilions govern the objective case.

EXERCISES IN PARSING. Learn to unlearn what you have learned amiss. What I forfeit for myself is a trifle ; that


indiscretions should reach my posterity, wounds me to the heart.

Lady Jane Gray fell a sacrifice to the wild ambition of the duke of Northumberland.

King Missipsi charged his sons to consider the senate and people of Rome as proprietors of the kingdom of Numidia.

Hazael smote ths children of Israel in all their coasts; and from what is left on record of his actions, he plainly appears to have proved, what the prophet foresaw him to be, a man of violence, cruelty, and blood.

Heaven hides from brutes what men, from men what spirits know.

He that formed the ear, can me not hear ? He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. Note 1. Learn, in the first of the preceding examples, is a transitive verb, because the action passes over from the nom. you understood, to the rest the sentence for its object : Kule 24. In the next exarople, that my

indiscre tions should reach my posterity, is a part of a sentence put as the nominative to the verb wounds, according to the same Rule.

2. The noun sacrifice, in the third example, is nom. after the active-intransitive verb fell: Rule 22. The noun proprietors, in the next sentence, is in the objective case, and put by apposition with senate and people : RULE 7, er governed hy consider, understood, according tu Rule 35.

3. In the fifth example, what, following proved, is a compound relative Thing, the antecedent part, is in the nom. case after to be, understood, and put by apposition with he, according to Rule 21, and Note. Which, the relative part, is in the obi. case after io be expressed, and put by apposition with him, according to the same RULE. Nían is in the obj. case, put by apposition with which : Rule 7. The latter part of the sentence may be liierally rendered thus: Ho plainly appears to have proved to be that base character which the prophet foresaw him to be, viz. a man of violence, cruelly, and blood. The antecedent part of the first what, in the next sentence, is governed by hides ; and which, the relative part, is governed by know understood. The antecedent part of the second what, is governed by hides under. stood, and the relative part is governed by know expressed. - This

4. The first he, in the seventh example, is, in the opinion of some, non. to can hear understood; but Mr. N. R. Smith, a distinguished and acute grammarian, suggests the propriety of rendering the sentence thus ; " He that formed the ear, formed it io hear; can he not hear ?" The first he, in the last example, is redundant ; yet the construction is sometimes admissible, for the expression is more forcible than it would be to say, “Let him hear who hath ears to hear;" and if we adopt the ingenious method of Mr. Smith, the sentence is grammatical, and may be rendered thus ; “He that hath ears, hath ears to hear; let hini hear."


Idioms, anomalies, and intricacies. 1. " The wall is three feet high." 2. “ His son is eight years old." 3. 66 My knife is worth a shilling." 4. " She is worth him and all his connexions." 5. “He has been there three times." 6. " The hat cost ten dollars." 7. “ The load weighs a tun."

The spar measures ninety feet.REMARKS.-—Anomaly is derived from the Greek, a, without, and omalos similar ; that is, without similarity. Some give its derivation thus ; anoinaly from the Latin, ab, from, or out of, and norma, a rule, or law, means an out law; a mode of expression that departs from the rules, laws, or general usages of the language; a construction in language peculiar to itself. Thus, it is a general rule of the language, that adjectives of one syllable are compared by adding r, or er, and st, or est, to the positive degree; but good, bet ler, best ; bad, worse, worst, are not compared according to the general i ule. They are, therefore, anomalies. The plural number of nouns is generally formed by adding s to the singular: man, men; woman, women ; child, chil dren; penny, pence, are anomalies. The use of news, means, alms, ano amends, in the singular, constitutes anomalies. Anomalous construction are correct according to custom; but, as they are departures from genera) rules, by them they cannot be analyzed.

An idiom, Latin idioma, a construction peculiar to a language, may be ak. anomaly, or it may not. An idiomatical expression which is not an anoinaly, can be analyzed.

Feet and years, in the 1, and 2, examples, are not in the nominative after is, according to Rule 21, because they are not in apposition with the respective nouns

that precede the verb; but the constructions are anomalous; and, therefore, no rule can be applied to analyze them. The same ideas, however, can be conveyed by a legitimate construction which can be analyzed thus, “ The height of the wall is three feet;“The age of my son is ciglat years."

8. 66

An anomaly, when ascertained to be such, is easily disposed of; but sometimes it is very difficult to decide whether a construction is anomalous or pot. The 3d, 4th, and 5th examples, are generally considered anomalies bat i wo supply, as we are, perhaps, warranted'in doing, the associated vords which inodern refinement has dropped, they will cease to be anoma. jies; thus, "My knife is of the worth of a shilling ;"

; *of the worth of him," &c.'“He has been there for three times ;" as we say, "I was unwell for three days, after I arrived;" or, “I was unwell three days.” Thus it appears, that by tracing back, for, a few centuries, what the merely modern English scholar supposes to be an anomaly, an ellipsis will frequently be discovered, which, when supplied, destroys the anomaly,

On extreme points, and peculiar and varying constructions in a living language, the most able philologists can never be agreed ; because many usages will always be unsettled and Auctuating, and will

, consequently, be disposed of according to the caprice of the grammarian. By some, a sentence may be treated as an anomaly; by others who contend for,.and supply, an ellipsis, the same sentence may be analyzed according to the ellipsis supplied; whilst others, who deny both the elliptical and anomaious character of the sentence, construct a rule by which to analyze it, which rule has for its foundation the principle contained in that sentence only. This last mode of procedure, inas. much as it requires us to make a rule for every peculiar construction in the language, appears to me to be the most exceptionable of the three. It ap pears to be multiplying rules beyond the bounds of utility.

The verbs,cost, weighs, and measures, in the 6th, 7th, and 8th examples, may be considered as transitive. See remarks on resemble, have, own, &c.,

page 56.

EXAMPLES. 1. “ And God said, “Let there be light,' and there was light.” " Let us make man.” " Let us bow before the Lord.” " Let high-born seraphs tune the lyre.”

2. " Be it enacted.” 66 Be it remembered.Blessed be he hat blesseth thee ; and cursed be he that curseth thce.” “My soul, turn from them :-turn we to survey,” &c.

3. « Methinks I see the portals of eternity wide open to receive him.” Melhought I was incarcerated beneath the mighty deep.” “ I was there just thirty years ago.

4. “ Their laws and their manners, generally speaking, were extremely rude.” “Considering their means, they have effected much." 5 “Ah me! nor hope nor life remains."

6. Me miserable! which way shall I fly?" 6. "Q happiness ! our being's end and aim!

Good, pleasure, ease, content! whate'er thy name,
That something still which prompts th' eternal sigh,

For which we bear to live, or dare to die."The verb let, in the idiomatick examples under number 1, has no nomina tive specified, and is lett applicable to a nominative of the first, szcond, or third person, and of either number. Every action necessarily depends on an agent or moving cause; and hence it follows, that the verb, in such construa tions has a nominative understood; but as that nominative is not particuarly pointed out, the constructions may be considered anomalous.

Instead of saying, "Let it [lo] be enacted;" or, “It is or shall be enacted ;** Let him (to] be blessed ;" or, “He sholl be blessed;" " Let us turn to sur vey,” &c.; the verbs, be enactei, be blessed, turn, &c. according to an idiomo? our language, or the poet's license, are used in the imperutive, agreeing with a nominative of the first or third person.

The phrases, mellinks and methought, are anomalies, in which the objective pronoun me, in the first person, is used in place of a nominative, and takes a verb after it in the third person. Him was anciently used in the same manner; as, “ liiin thute, him thought.” There was a period when these constructions were not anomalies in our language. Formerly, what we call the objective cases of our pronouns, were employed in the same manner as our present nominatives are. Ago is a contraction of agone, the past part. of to go. Before this participle was contracted to an adverb, the noun gears preceding it, was in the nominative case absolute; but now the construction amounts to an anomaly. The expressions, “generally speaking,' and “considering their means," under number 4, are idiomatical and ano. malous, the subjects to the participles not being specified.

According to the genius the English languagc, transitive verbs and pre positions require the objective case of a noun or pronoun after them; and this requisition is all thai is meant by government, when we say, that these parts of speech govern the objective case. See pages 52, 57, and 94. The same principle applies to the interjection. “Interjections require the objective case of a pronoun of the first person after them; but the nominative of a noun or pronoim of the second or third person; as, “Ah me! Oh thou ! O my country!" To say, then, that interjections require particular cases after them, is synony?: ous with saying, that they govern those cases; and this office of the in terjection is in perfect accordance with that which it performs in the Latin and many other langnages. In the examples under number 5, the first me is in the objective after “ah,” and the second me, after ah understood ; thus, Al miserable me!” according to Note 2, under Rule 5.--Happiness, under number 6, is nom. independent; Rule 5, or in the nom. after 0, according to this Note. The principle contained in the note, proves that every noun of the second person is in the rominative case; for, as the pronoun of the second person, in such a situation, is always nominative, which is shown by its form, it logically follows that the noun, under such circurnstances, although it has no form to show its case, must necessarily be in the same case as the pronoun. "Good, pleasure, ease, content, that,” the antecedent par of whatever,” and which, the relative part, are nom. after art understood: Rule 21, and name is nom. to be understood.

The second line may be rendered thus; Whether thou art good, or whether thou art pleasure, fc. or be thy name that [thing) which [ever thing) it may be: putting be in the imperative, agreeing with name in the third person. Something is nominative after art understood.

EXAMPLES. 1. “ All were well but the stranger.” “I saw nobody but the stranger.”

" All had returned but he." " None but the brave deserve the fair.” “The thing they can't but purpose, they postpone.“ This life, at best, is but a dream.” affords but a scanty measure of enjoyment." " If he but touch the hills, they will smoke." “ Man is but a reed, floating on the current of time."

2. “ Notwithstanding his poverty, he is content." 3. “Open your hand wide.“The apples boil soft.The

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pnrest clay is that which burns white."

« Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.”

4. “What though the swelling surge thou see ?" &c. “ What of the foot, ordaind the dust to tread ?" &c.

REMARKS.-According to the principle of analysis assumed by many of our most critical philologists, bui is always a disjunctive conjunction; and agreeably to the same authorities, to construe it, in any case, as a preposition, would lead to errour. See false Syntax under Rule 35. They maintain, that its legitimate and undeviating office is, to join on a member of a sentence which expresses opposition of meaning, and thereby forms an exception to, or takes from the universality of the proposition contained in the precedin. member of the sentence. That it sustains its true character as a conjuncresolution of them. ---- All were well but the stranger (was not well.] “i saw nobody but [I saw] the stranger.” 6 None deserve the fair but the brave (deserve the fair.”] They postpone the thing which (they ought to do, and do not,] but which (thing) they cannot avoid purposing to do." life, at best, (is not a reality,] but it is a dream. It affords not unbounded fruition] but it affords a scanty measure of enjoyment.” “If he touch the hills, but exert no greater power upon them, they will sinoke;"—“If he exert no greater power upon the hills, but [be-out this fact] if he touch them, they will smoke." “ Man is not a stable being, but he is a reed, floating on the current of time.” This method of analyzing sentences, however, if I mistake not, is too much on the plan of our pretended philosophical writers, who, in their rage for ancient constructions and combinations, often overlook the modern associated meaning and application of this word. It appears to me to be more consistent with the modern use of the word, to consider it an adverh in constructions like the following: “ If he but (only, merely) touch the hills they will smoke."

Except and near, in examples like the following, are generally construed as prepositions: “All went except him;" “ She stands near them.” But many contend, that when we employ but instead of except, in such constructions, a nominative should follow: “ All went but he [did not go."] On this point and many others, custom is variable; but the period will doubtless ar rive, when but, worth, and like, will be considered prepositions, and, in con structions like the foregoing, invariably be followed by an objective case, This will not be the case, however, until the practice of supplying an ellipsis after these words is entirely dropped.

Poverty, under number 2, is governed by the preposition notwithstanding, Rule 31. The adjectives wide, soft, white, and deep, under number 3, not oniy express the quality of nouns, but also qualify verbs : Note 4, under Rule 18.--I hat, in the phrases “what though” and what if,” is an interrogative in the objective case, and governed by the verb matters understood, or 5y some other verb; thus, "What matters it-what dost thou fear, though thou see the swelling surge ?” “What would you think, if the foot, which is ordained to tread the dust, aspired to be the head ?

In the following examples, the same word is used as several parts of speech. But by exercising judgment sufficient to comprehend the meaning, and by supplying what is understood, you will be able to analyze them correctly.

I like what you dislike.
Every creature loves its like.
Anger, envy, and like passions, are sinful.


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