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have already hinted, that parsing in poetry, as t brings more immediately into requisition the reasoning faculties, than parsing in prose, will ner.essarily tend more rapidly to facilitate your progress: therefore it is advisable that your future exercises in this way, be chiefly confined to the analysis of poctry. Previous to your attem; ting to parse a piece of poetry, you ought always to transpost it, in a manner similar to the examples just presented; and thin it can be as easily analyzed as prose. Before
you proc -ed to correct the following exercises in false syntax, you may tu mn back and read over the whole thirteen lec. tures, unless you l ave the subject-matter already stored in your mind.
At the commencement of lecture IT. I informed
you mology treats, 3dly, of derivation.
This branch of Etymology, important as it is, cannot be very extensively treated in an elementary work on grammar. In the course of the preceding lectures, it has been frequently agitated; and now I shall offer a few more remarks, which will doubtless be useful in illustrating some of the various methods in which one word is derived from another. Before you proceed, however, please to turn back and read again what is advanced on this subjeet on page 27, and in the Pun.osoPHICAL Notes.
1. Nouns are derived from verbs.
2. Verbs are derived from nouns, adjectives, and sometimos from adverbs.
3. Adjectives are derived from nouns. 4. Nouns are derived fron adjectives. 5. Adverbs aro derived from adjectives.
1. Nouns are derived from verbs; as, from “to love," comes“ lover ;" from “ to visit, visiter ;" from “ to survive, surviver," &c.
In the follo:ving instances, and in many others, it is difficult to determine whether the verb was deduced from the noun, or the noun froin the verb, riz. “ Love, to lovc; hale, to hate; fcar, to fear; sleep, to sleep ; walk, to vulk; ride, to ride ; act, to act," &c.
2. Verbs are derived from nouns, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs; as, from the noun salt, comes “to salt;" from the adjective warm, - to warm ;” and from the adverb forward, forward.” Sometimes they are formed by lengthening the vowel, or softening the consonant; as, from“ grass, to graze ;' sometimes by adding en; as, from “ length, to lengthen;" especially to adjectives; as, from "short, to shorten ; bright, to brighten."
3. Adjectives are derived from nouns in the following man ner: adjectives denoting plenty are derived from nouns by add ing y; as, from "Health, healthy; wealth, wealthy ; inight, mighty," &c.
Adjectives denoting the matter out of which any thing is made, are derived from nouns by adding en; as, from “ Oak, oaken , wood, wooden; wool, woollen," &c.
Adjectives denoting abundance are derived from nouns by adding ful; as, from “Joy, joyful; sin, sinful ; fruit, fruit ful," &c.
Adjectives denoting plenty, but with some kind of diminution, are derived from nouns by adding some ; as, from “ Light, lightsome; trouble, troublesome; toil, toilsome," &c.
Adjectives denoting want are derived from nouns by adding less ; as, from “Worth, worthless ;" from "care, careless; joy, jovless,” &c.
Adjectives denoting likeness are derived from nouns by adding ly; as, from “ Man, manly ; earth, earthly; court, courtly,” &c.
Some adjectives are derived from other adjectives, or from nouns by adding ish to them ; which termination when added to adjectives, imports diminution, or lessening the quality ; as, "White, whitish ;' i. e. somewhat white. When added to nouns, it signifies similitude or tendency to a character ; as, “ Child, childish ; thief, thievish.”
Some adjectives are formed from nouns or verbs by adding the termination able; and those adjectives signify capacity; as, “ Answer, answerable ; to change, changeable."
4. Nouns are derived from adjectives, sometimes by adding the termination ness; as, “ White, whiteness ; swift, swiftness ; sometimes by adding th ort, and making a small change in some of the letters ; as, “Long, length; high, height."
5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by adding ly, or changing le into ly; and denote the same quality as the adjectives from which they are derived; as, from comes “basely;" from “slow, slowly ;" from "able, ably.”
There are so many other ways of deriving words from one
another, that it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of every language are very few; the derivatives form much the greater number. А few moru instances only can be given here.
Some nouns are derived from other nouns, hy adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, doin, ian, ment,
Nouns ending in hood or head, are such as signify character or qualities; as, “ Manhood, knighthood, falsehood," &c.
Nouns ending in ship, are those that signify office, employ. ment, state, or condition; as, “Lordship, stewardship, partnership,” &c. Some nouns in ship are derived from adjectives ; as, “llard, hardship,” &c.
Nouns which end in ery, signify action or habit; as, “Slavery foolery, prudery," &c. Some nouns of this sort come from adjectives; as, “Brave, bravery," &c.
Nonns ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote dominion, jurisdiction, or condition; as, " Bailiwick, bishoprick, kingdom, dukedom, freedom,” &c. Nouns which end in ian, are those that signify profession;
Physician, musician,” &c. Those that end in ment and age, come generally from the French, and commonly signify the act or habit; as, 6 Commandment,” “
usage.” Some nouns ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjec tives, and denote character or habit; as, Drunk, drunkard; dote, dotard."
Söme nouns have the form of diminutives ; but these are not many. They are formed by adding the terminations kin, ling, ing, ock, el, and the like; as, “ Lainb, lambkin ; goose, gosling; duck, duckling ; hill, hillock; cock, cockerel,” &c.
OF PREPOSITIONS USED AS PREFIXES. I shall conclude this lecture by presenting and explaining a list of Latin anıl Greek prepositions which are extensively used in English as prefixes. By carefully studying their signification, you will be better qualified to understand the meaning of those
words into the composition of which they ente, and of which they form a material part.
I. LATIN PREFIXES. A, ab, abs-signify from or away; as, a-vert, to turn from ; ab-Ject, to throw away; abs-tract, to draw away,
Ad-to or at; as, ad-here, to stick to; ad-mire, to wonder at.
Con, com, co, col-together; as, con-join, to join together; com-press, to press together; co-operate, to work together; col-lapse, to fall together.
Contra-against ; as, contra-dict, to speak against.
Di, dis-asunder, away; as, di-lacerate, to tear asunder ; dis-miss, to send away.
E, ef, exmout; as, e-Ject, to throw out; efflux, to flow out, ex-clude, to shut out.
Extra-beyond; as, extra-ordinary, beyond what is ordinary.
In, im, il, ir--(in, Gothick, inna, a cave or cell ;) as, in-füee, to pour in. These prefixes, when incorporated with adjectives or nouns, commonly reverse their meaning; as, in-sufficient, im-polite, il-legitimate, ir-reverence, ir resolute.
Inter-between; as, inter-pose, to put between.
Ob, op-denote opposition; as, ob-ject, to bring against ; op-pugn, to op. pose.
Per-through, by; as, per-ambulate, to walk through ; per-haps, by haps
Pro-for, forth, forward ; as, pro-roun, for a noun; pro-lend, to stretch forth; pro-ject, to shoot forward.
Præter-past, beyond ; as, preter-perfect, pastperfect; preter-natural, be. yond the course of nature.
Re—again or back; as, re-peruse, to peruse again ; re-trace, to trace back,
Super--above or over; as, super-scribe, to write above ; super-vise, to overlook.
Trans-over, beyond, from one place to another; as, trans-port, to carry over; trans-gress, to pass beyond.
II. GREEK PREFIXES. A-signifies privation; as, anonymous, without name, Amphi—both or two; as, amphi-bious, partaking of both or two natures. Anti-against ; as, anti-masonry, against masonry. Dia—through; as, dia-meter, line passing through a circle. Hyper-over; as, hyper-critical, over or too critical.
Hype-under, implying concealment or disguise; as, hypo-crite, one dis semsling his real character.
Metudenotes change or transmutation; as, meta-morphose, to change
Para-contrary or against; as, para-dox, a thing contrary to received opinion. Perimround about; as, peri-phrasis, circumlocution.
Syn, syl, sym--together; as, syn-tat, a placing together; syn-od, a meeting or coming together; syllable, that portion of a word which is taken to gether ; sym-pathy, fellow-fccling, or fceling together.
RULES OF SYNTAX,
WITII ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN FALSE SYNTAX.
The third part of Grammar is Syntax, which (reats of the agreement and government of words, and of their proper arrangement in a sentence.
SYNTAX consists of two parts, Concord and Government.
CONCORD is the agreement which one word has with another, in gender, person, number, or case.
For the illustration of agreement and government, see pages 52, and 53.
For the definition of a sentence, and the transposition of its words and members, see pages 119, 124, 128, and 167.
The principal parts of a simple sentence are the nominative or subject, the verb or attribute, or word that makes the affirmation, and the object, or thing affected by the action of the verb; as, “ A wise man governs his passions.” In this sentence, man is the subject; governs, the attribute; and passions the object.
A PHRASE is two or more words rightly put together, making sometimes a part of a sentence, and sometimes a whole sentence.
Ellipsis is the omission of some word or words, in order to avoid disagreeable and unnecessary repetitions, and to express our ideas con •cisely, and with strength and elegance.
In this recapitulation of the rules, Syntax is presented in a condensed form, many of the essential Notes being omitted. This is a necessary consequence of my general plan, in which Etymology and Syntax, you know are blended. lierce, to