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Note 2. Let each esteem others better than themselves. There are bodies, each of which are so small as to be invisible,

Every person, whatever their station may be, are bound by the laws of morality and religion.

Note 3. On either side of the river was the tree of life.
Nadab and Abihu took either of them his censer.

RULE XX. Active-transitive verbs govern the objective case; as, “ Cesar conquered Pompey;" " Columbus discovered America;” “Truth ennobles her."

FALSE SYNTAX. Ye who were dead, hath he quickened.

Ye in the nominative case, is erroncous, because it is the object of the action expressed by the transitive verb “ hath quickened ;" and therefore it should be you, in the objective case. You would then be governed by "hath quickened,” agreeably to Rule 20. Active-transitive verbs govern the objective


Who did they entertain so freely?

They who opulence has made proud, and who luxury has corrupted, cannot relish the simple pleasures of nature.

He and they we know, but who are ye?
She that is negligent, reprove sharply.
He invited my brother and I to pay him a visit.
Who did they send on that mission?

They who be has most injured, he had the greatest reason to love.

RILE XXI. The verb to be may have the same case after it as before it; as, “ I am the man ;" “I believe it to have been them ;" He is the thief.:

Note 1. When nouns or pronouns next preceding and following the verb to be, signify the same thing, they are in apposition, and, therefore, in the same case. Rule 21 is predicated on the principle contained in Rule 7.

2. The verb to be is often understood; as, “ The Lord made me man; He made him what he was ;" that is, “ The Lord made me to be man; He niade him to be that which he was.” “ They desired me to call them brethren;" i. e. by the name of brethren. “They named him John;" i. e, by the name of John ; or, by the name John: putting these two nouns in apposition.

FALSE SYNTAX. I know it to be they. Improper, because it is in the objective casc before the verb "to be," and they is in the nominative asler; consequentiy, Rule 21 is violated. They is in apposition with it, therefore they should be thcm, in the objective after to be, according to Rule 21. (Repeat the Rule.)

Be composed, it is me.
I would not act thus, if I were him.
Well may you be afraid; it is him, indeed.
Who do you fancy him to be?
Whom do men say that I am? Whom say ye that I am ?
If it was not him, who do you imagine it to have been?
He supposed it was me; but you knew that it was him.

RULE XXII. Active-intransitive and passive verbs, the verb tu become, and other neuter verbs, have the same case after them as before them, when both words refer to, and signify, the same thing; as, “ Tom struts a soldier ;" Will sneaks a scrivener;" He was called Cesar :"> “ The general was saluted emperour ;" They have become fools."

Note 1. Active-intransitive verbs sometimes assume a transitive form, and govern the objective case; as, “ To dream a dream; To run a race; To walk the horse ; To dance the child; To fly the kiie."

2. According to a usage too common in colloquial style, an agent not literally the correct one, is employed as the nominative to a passive verb, which causes the verb to be followed by an objective case without the possibility of supplying before it a preposition: thus, " Pitticus was offered a large sum by the king;" She was promised them (the jewels) by her mother;" “ I was asked a question.” It would be better sense, and

inore agreeable to the idiom of our language, to say, “A large sum was offered to Pitticus ;" They were promised (to) her ;" " A question was put to one."

3. Some passive verbs are formed by using the participles of compound active verbs. To smile, to wonder, to dream, are intransitive verbs, for which reason they have no passive voice; but, to smile on, to wonder at

, to (lteam of, are compound active-transitive verbs, and, therefore, admit of a passive voice; as, “He was siniled on by fortune; The accident is not to be won. dered .;"

There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
“ Than are dreamed of in your philosophy.”

RULE XXIII. A verb in the infinitive mood may be governed by a verb, noun, adjective, participle, or pronoun; as,

Cease to do evil;" 66 We all have our talent to be improved ;" “ She is eager to learn;" “ They are preparing to go;" “ Let him do it.”

ILLUSTRATION. The supposed principle of government referred to in this rule, may be thus illustrated. In the sentence, “ Cease to do evil,” the peculiar manner in which cease is introduced, requires or compels us to put the verb do in the infinitive mood; and, according to the genius of our language, we cannot express this act of doing, when thus connected with cease, in any otncr mood, unless we change the construction of the sentence. Hen

we to

kay, that cease governs the mood of the verb do. Similar remarks may be applied to the words talent, eager, preparing, and hin, in the respective ex. amples under the rule.

Many respectable grammarians refer the government of this mood inva. riably to the preposition to prefixed, which word they do not, of course, con. sider a part of the verb. Others contend, and with some plausibility, that this mood is not governed by any particular word. If we reject the idea of government, as applied to the verb in this mood, the following rule, if sub stituted for the foregoing, might, perhaps, answer all practical purposes.

RULE. A verb in the infinitive mood, refers to some noun or pronoun, as its subject or actor.

ILLUSTRATION of the examples under Rule XXIII. “ To do” refers to thou understood for its agent ; “ to be improved” refers to talent ; learn," to she ; “to go,” to they; and “to do,” refers to hirm.

Note 1. The infinitive moud absolute stands in lependent of the rest of the sentence; as, “ To confess the truth, I was in fault.”

2. The infinitive mood' is sometimes governed by conjunctions or ad. verbs; as “An object so high as to be invisible;" “ He is wise enough to do ceive;" ;" “ The army is about to march.”

RULE XXIV. The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is fre quently put as the nominative case to a verh, or the object of an active-transitive verb; as, To play is pleasant;" “ Boys love to play;" That warm climates shorten life, is reasonable to suppose;" “ lle does not consider how near he approaches to his end.

Note. To, the sign of the infinitive mood, is sometimes properly omitted; as, “ I heard him say it;" instead of, " to say it."

The verbs which follow bid, dare, need, make,
see, hear, feel, help, let, and their participles, are
in the infinitive mood without the sign to prefixed;
as, “He bids me come;" “I dare engage;"
“ Let me go ;" “ Help me do it ;" i. e. to come,
go, to do it, &c. “He is hearing me recite."

Bid him to come.
He durst not to do it without permission.
Hear him to read his lesson.

It is the difference in their conduct, which makes us to apa prove

the one, and to reject the other. It is better live on a little, than outlive a great deal. I wish bim not wrestle with his happiness.

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RULE XXVI. Participles have the same government as the verbs have from which they are derived; as, “I saw the tutor instructing his pupils.

Note. The present participle with the definite article the before it, be comes a noun, and must have the preposition of after it. The and of must both be used, or both be omitted; as, “ By the observing of truth, you will command respect ;" or, “ By observing truth,” &c.

FALSE SYNTAX. Note. We cannot be wise and good without the taking pains for it.

The changing times and seasons, the removing and setting up kings, belong to Providence alone.

These are the rules of grammar, by observing of which you may avoid mistakes.

RULE XXVII. The present participle refers to some noun or pronoun denoting the subject or actor; as, “I see a boy running."

RULE XXVIII. The perfect participle belongs, like an adjective, to some noun or pronoun, expressed or imderstood; as, “I saw the boy abused.

NOTE 1. Participles of neuter verbs have the same case after them as before them; as, “ Pontius Pilate being Governour of Judea, and Herod being Tetrarch,&c.

2. A participle with its adjuncts, may sometimes be considered as a substantive or participial phrase, which phrase may be the subject of a verb, or the object of a verb or preposition; as, “ Taking from another without his knowledge or assent, is called stealing; He studied to avoid expressing himself too severely; I cannot fail of having money, &c.; By promising much and per. forming but little, we become despicable.”

3. As the perfect participle and the imperfect tense of irregular verbs, are
sometimes different in their form, care must be taken that they be not indis-
criminately used. It is frequently said, ‘he begun,' for ' he began;' He
run," for, he ran;!• He come,' for he came ;' the participles being here
used instead of the imperfect tense; and much more frequently is the im-
perfect tense employed instead of the participle; as, 'I had wrote,' for 'I
had writton ;' 'I was chose,' for 'I was chosen ;'( I have eat,' for 'I have
eaten.' 'He would have spoke;'-spoken. 'He overrun his guide;im-overran
• The sun had rose;'-risen.

I seen him. I have saw many a one.

Seen is improper, the perfect participle being used instead of the imperfect lense of the verb. It ought to be, "I saw him,” according to Note 3. Have saw is also erroneons, the imperfect tense being employed mstead of the per. fect participle. The perfect tense of a verb is formed by combining the aunliary inve with its perfect participle: therefore the sentence should bo written thus, “I have seen many a one:" Note 3.

Note 3. He done me no harm, for I had wrote my letter before he come home.

Had not that misfortune befel my cousin, he would have went to Europe long ago.

The sun had already arose, when I began my journey.
Since the work is began, it must be prosecuted.
The French language is spoke in every state in Europe.

He writes as the best authors would have wrote, had they writ on the same subject.

RULE XXIX. Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives, and other adverbs; as, “ A very good pen writes extremely well ;" “ By living temperately,&c.

Note 1. Adverbs are generally set before adjuctivcs or adverbs, after verbs, or between the auxiliary and the verb; as, “He made a very sensible discourse, and was attentively heard."

2. When the qualifying word which follows a verb, expresses quality, it must be an adjective, but when it expresses manner, an adverb should be used; as,

“She looks cold; She looks coldly on him; He feels warm ; He feels warmly the insult offered to him.” If the verb to be can be substituted for the one employed, an adjective should follow, and not an adverb; as “Sie looks [is] cold; The hay sınells (is) sweet; The fields look {are] green; The apples taste (are) sour" ; The wind blows (is) fresh.

3. It is not strictly proper to apply the adverbs here, there, and where, to verbs signifying motion, instead of the adverbs hither, thither, whither : thus “ He came here [hither] hastily;" “They rode there (thither! in two hours ;'

Where [whither) will he go?" But in familiar style. these constructions are so far sanctioned as sometimes to be admissible.

4. The use of where, instead of in which, in constructions like the following, is hardly, admissible : “ The immortal sages of '76, formed a charter, where (in which their rights are boldly asserted.”

5. As the adverbs hence, thence, and whence, literally supply the place of a noun and preposition, there appears to be a solecism in employing a preposition in conjunction with them: From whence it follows;" " He came from thence since morning.” Better, " whence it follows ;" thence." The following phrases are also exceptionable : “ The then minis try;" “The above argument ;" * Ask mo never so much dowry;" “ Charm he never su wisely." Better, “The ministry of that time or period ;" “ Tho preceding argument ;' “ Ever so much dowry;" “ Ever so wisely."

FALSE SYNTAX. Note 1. It cannot be impertinent or ridiculous therefore lo remonstrate.

Ile was pleasing not often, because he was vain.
These things should be never separated.
We may happily live, though our possessions are small.

6: He came

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