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" I saw a vessel sailing. Sailing is a participle, a word derived from a verb, and partakes of the nature of a verb, and also of an adjective—it comes from the verb to sail-pres. sailing, perf. sailed, comp. having sailed it is a present or imperfect participle, because it denotes the continuance of an unfinished action-and refers to the noun “ vessel" for its subject, according to
Rule 27. The present participle refers to some noun or pronoun denoting the subject or actor.
“Not a breath disturbs the sleeping billow.” Sleeping is a participial adjective, a word added to a noun to express its quality-it cannot, with propriety, be compared—it belongs to the noun “ billow," agreeably to
Rule 18. Adjectives belong to, and qualify, nouns expressed or understood.
You will please to parse these two words several times over, and, by a little reflection, you will perfectly understand the 27th Rule. Recollect, the participle never varies its termination to agree with a noun or pronoun, for, as it has no nominative, it has no agreement; but it simply refers to an actor. Examples : I see a vessel sailing; or, I see three vessels sailing. You perceive that the participle sailing refers to a singular noun in the first example, and to a plural noun in the second ; and yet the participle is in the same form in both examples. The noun vessel is in the objective case, and governed by the transitive verb
But when a verb follows a noun, the ending of the verb generally varies in order to agree with the noun which is its nominative; as, the vessel sails; the vessels sail.
In this place it may not be improper to notice another Rule that relates to the participle. In the sentence,
66 The man is beating his horse," the noun horse is in the objective case, because it is the object of the action expressed by the active-transitive participle “beating," and it is governed by the participle beating, according to
Rule 26. Participles have the same government as the verbs have from which they are derived.
The principle upon which this rule is founded, is quite apparent. As a participle derived from a transitive verb, expresses the same kind of action as its verb, it necessarily follows, that the participle must govern the same case as the verb from which it is derived.
When you shall have studied this lecture attentively, you may proceed and parse the following exercises, containing five parts of speech, if in analyzing these examples, you find any words
which you cannot parse correctly and systematically by referring to your Compend for definitions and rules, you will please to turn back and read over again the whole five lectures. You must exercise a little patience; and, for your encouragement, permit me to remind
shall have acquired a thorough knowledge of these five parts of specch, only five more will remain for you to learn. Be ambitious to excel. Be thorough in your investigations. Give your reasoning powers free scopo. By studying these lectures with attention, you will acquire moro grammatical knowledge in three months, than is commonly obtained in two years.
In the following examples, the words purling, crusted, slumbering, and twinkling, are participial adjectives. There and its you may omit.
EXERCISES IN PARSING. Orlando left the herd grazing. The hunters heard the young dog barking. The old fox heard the sportsman's horn sounding Deep rivers float long rafts. Purling streams moisten the earth's surface. The sun approaching, melts the crusted snow. The slurabering seas calmed the grave old hermits mind. Pale Cynthia declining, clips the horizon. Man beholds the twinkling stars adorning night's blue arcn. The stranger saw the desert thistle bending there its lonely head.
REMARKS ON PARTICIPLES. Participles frequently become nouns; as, " A good understanding ; Ex. cellent writing; He made a good beginning, but a bad ending.
Constructions like the following, have long been sanctioned by the best authorities: “ The goods are selling ;" “ The house is building;” The work is now publishing." A modern innovation, however, is likely to supersede this mode of expression : thus, “ The goods are being sold ; " " The house 19 being built;"" The work is now being publishech" You may now answer these
QUESTIONS NOT ANSWERED IN PARSING.
How many kinds of participles are there?-What is the ending of a present participle ?-What does a perfect participle denote -With what does the perfect participle of a regular verb corres. pond ?-What is a compound participle ? From what word is the term participle derived ?-Why is this part of speech thus named ?-Wherein does this part of speech pa ake of the nature of a verb? Do all participles participate the properties of adjectives ?-In what respect ?—When are participles called parli cipial adjectives ?-_Give examples.--How may a present participle be known ?--Repeat the order of parsing a participle.What Rule applies in parsing a present participle ?Whaj Rule
m parsing a participial adjective ?--Do participles rary in their terminations in order to agree with their subject or actor ?What Rule applies in parsing a noun in the objective case, gove erned by a participle ?-Do participles ever become nouns ?Give examples. QUESTIONS ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL NOTES.
How are participles formed ?--What does the imperfect part. express ?M'hat do perfect participles denote?
An ADVERB is a word used to modify the sense sent a verb, a participle, an adjective, or another
Recollcct, an adverb ñever qualifies a noun.
It qualifies any of the four parts of speech abovenamed, and none others.
To modify or qualify, you know, means to produce some change. The adverb modifies. If I say, Wirt's style eccels Irving's, the proposition is affirmative, and the verb excels expresses the affirmation. But when I say, Wirt's style excels not İrving's, the assertion is changed to a negative. What is it that thus modifies or changes the meaning of the verb excels ?. You perceive that it is the little word not. This word has reverse the meaning of the sentence. Not, then, is a modifier, qualifier, or regative adverb.
When an adverb is used to modify the sense of a verb or participle, it generally expresses the manner, time, or place, in which
As the happiness and increasing prosperity of a people essentially depend on their advancement in science and the arts, and as language, in all its sublimc purposes and legitimate bearings, is strictly identified with these, it may naturaıly be supposed, that that nation which continues, through sucL'exsive generations, steadily to progress in the former, will not be neglectful of the cultivation and refinement of the latter. The truth of this remark is illuetra:ed by those who have, for many ages, employed the English language as their medium for the transmission of thought. Ainong its refinements may be ranked those procedures by which verbs and nouns have been 80 modificd and contracted as to form what we call adverbs, distributives, conjunctions, and prepositions: fos I presume it will be readily concoded,
the action is performed, or some accidental circumstance respect ing it. In the phrases, The 'man rides gracefully, awkwardly badly, swiftly, slowly, &c.; or, I saw the man riding swiftly, sloto ly, leisurely, very fast, &c., you perceive that the words graceful ly, awkwardly, very fast, &c. are adverbs, qualifying the verb rides, or the participle riding, because they express the manner in which the action denoted by the verb and participle, is done.
In the phrases, The man rides daily, weekly, seldom, frequently, often, sometimes, never; or, The man rode yesterday, heretofore, long since, long ago, recently, latery, just now; or, The man will ride soon, presently, directly, immediately, by and by to-day, hereafter, you perceive that all these words in italicks, are adverbs, qualifying the meaning of the verb rides, because they express the time of
the action denoted by the verb. Again, if I say, The man lives here, near by, yonder, remote, far off, somewhere, norchere, everywhere, &c., the words in italicks are adverbs of place, because they tell where he lives.
Adverbs likewise qualify adjectives, and sometimes other ad verbs ; as, more wise, most wise ; or more wisely, most wisely When an adverb is joined to an adjective or adverb, it generally expresses the degree of comparison ; for adverbs, like adjectives, have degrees of comparison! Thus, in the phrase, å skilful artist, you know the adjective skilful is in the positive degree; but, by placing the adverb more before the adjective, we increase the degree of quality denoted by the adjective to the comparative; as, A more skilful artist : and most renders it superlative; as, A most skilful artist. And if we place more and most before other adverbs, the effect is the same; as, skilfully, more skilfully. most skilfully.
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.
Comparative. Superlative. | soon,
soonest. often, oftener
oftonest. much, more,
most. well, better,
bes: far, farther,
more wisely, most wisely justly,
more justly, inost justly. justly, less justly,
least justly. that conciseness, as well as copiousness and perspicuity in language, 18 the offspring of refinement. Thai an immense amount of time and breath is saved by the use of adverbs, the following developnient will clearly demon strate. He who is successful in contracting one mode of expression that is daily used by thirty millions, doubtless does much for their benefit
. Most adverbs express in one word what would otherwise require two or
* You will generally know an adverb at sight ; but sometimes you will find it more difficult to be distinguished, than any
other part of speech in the English language. I will, therefore, give you soine signs which will assist you a little. Most words ending in ly are adverbs; such as, politely, grare. fully, judiciously. Any word or short phrase that will answer to any one of the questions, how ? how much? when ? or where ? is an adverb ; as, The river flows rapidly; He walks very fasl ; He has gone far away; but he will soon return; She sings sweetly; They learn none at all. How, or in what manner does the river flow? Rapidly. How does he walk? Very fast. Where has he
gone ? Far
When will he return? Soon. How does she sing? Sweetly. How much do they learn? None at all. From this illustration you perceive, that, if you could not tell these adverbs by the sense, you would know them by their answering to the questions. However, your better way will be to distinguish adverbs by considering the office they perform in the sentence; or hy noticing their grammatical relation, or their situation, with respect to other words. To gain a thorough knowledge of their real character, is highly important. Rapidly, fast, far away, soon, sweetly, &c. are known to be adverbs by their qualifying the sense of verbs. “ A rery good pen writes extremnely well.” Well, in this sentence, is known to be an adverb by its qualifying the sense of the verb writes ; extremely, by its ending in ly, or by its being joined to the adverb well to qualify it; and very is known as an adverb by its joining the adjective good.
Expressions like these, none at all, a great deal, a few days ago, long since, at lengih, in vain, when they are used to denote the manner or time of the action of verbs or participles, are generally called adverbial phrases.
more words; as, “ He did it here," for, He did it in this place; there, for, in that place ; wheré, for, in what place ; now, for, at this time. Why means for what reason ; how—in what mind, mood, mode. or manner; exceedingly-lo a great degree; very—in an eminent degree; often and seldom signify many times, few times.
The procedures by which words have been contracted modified and combined, to form this class of words, have been various. The most prolifick family of this illegitimate race, are those in ly a contraction of like. Gentieman-ly, means gentleman-like, like a gentleman. We do not yet say, ladily, but lady-like. The north Britons still say, wiselike, manlike, instead of, wisely, manly.
Quick comes from gwick, the past part, of the Anglo-Saxon verh gwiccian, ta vivify, give life. Quick-ly or live-ly, means, in a quick-like or life-like mander; in the manner of a creature that has life. Rapid-ly-- rapiil-like, like a rapid; a quick-ly or swift-ly running place in a stream.
Al-ways, contraction of is all ways. By a slight transition, it means in our