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Adverbs, though very numerous, may, for the sake of practical convenience, be reduced to particular classes.
1. Of Number; as, Once, twice, thrice, &c. 2. Of Order ; as, First, secondly, lastly, finally, &c. 3. Of Place; as, Here, there, where, elsewhere, anywhere,
somewhere, nowhere, herein, whither, hither, thither, upward, downward, forward, backward, whence, thence,
whithersoever, &c. 4. Of Time.
Present ; as, Now, to-day, &c.
always, when, then, ever, never, again, &c. 5. Of Quantity; as, Much, little, sufficiently, how much,
how great, enough, abundantly, &c. 6. Of Manner or quality; as, Wisely, foolishly, justly, un
justly, quickly, slowly, &c. Adverbs of quality are the most numerous kind; and they are generally formed by adding the termination ly to an adjective or a participle, or by changing le into ly; as, Bad, badly; cheerful, cheer
fully; able, ably; admirable, admirally. 7. Of Doubt ; as, haply, perhaps, peradventure, possibly,
perchance. 8. Of Affirmation; as, Verily, truly, undoubtedly, doubtless.
certainly, yea, yes, surely, indeed, really, &c. 9. Of Negation; as, Nay, no, not, by no means, not at all,
in no wise, &c. 10. Of Interrogation; as, How, why, wherefore, whither, &c.,
and sometimes when, whence, where.
at all times. Alcone, contraction of all-one. On-ly-one-like. Al-se-all the same (thing.) Ever--an age. For ever and ever--for ages and ages. Ever is not synonymous with always. Never-ne ever. It signifies no age, no period of time. No, contraction of not. Nol, a modification of no-thing, noth-ing, nought, naught. “He is not greater"-is greater in nought-in no thing.
Kdrift is the past part, adrifed, adrif'd, adrift; from the Saxon drifan, or aulrifan, to drive. Ago, formerly written ygo, gon, agon, gone, agone, is the past part. of the verb to go. It refers to time gone by. Asunder, the Saxon past part. asundren, from the verb sondrian or asondrian, to separate. Aofon The loft, on luft, on lyft; lyft bieng the Anglo-Saxon word for air or clouds. Astray, the part. of straegan, to stray. Awry, part. of wrylhan, to wrilho,
Needs--seed-is; anciently, nedes, nede is.
11 Of Comparison ; as, More, most, better, best, worse, worst, less, least, very, almost, little, alike, &c.
NOTES. 1. This catalogue contains but a small portion of the adverbs ir our anguage. Many adverbs are formed by a combination of prepositions with che adverbs of place, here, there, where ; as, Hereof, thereof, whereof; here. to, thereto, whereto; hereby, thereby, whereby; herewith, therewith, wherewith; herein, therein, wherein; therefore, (i. e. there-for,) wherefore, (ie where-for,) hereupon, hereon, thereupon, thereon, whereupon, whero
2. Some adverbs are composed of nouns or verbs and the letter a, used mstead of at, on, &c.; as, Aside, athirst, afoot, asleep, aboard, ashore, abed, aground, afloat, adrift, aghast, ago, askance, away, asunder, astray, &c.
You will now please to read this lecture four times over, and read slowly and carefully, for unless you understand well the nature and character of this part of speech, you will be frequently at a loss to distinguish it from others in composition. Now do you notice, that, in this sentence which you Tead, the words slowly, carefully, well, and frequently, are adverbs ? And do you again observe, that, in the question I have just put to you, the words now and just are adverbs ? Exercise a little sober thought. Fifteen minutes spent in reflection, are worth whole days occupied in careless reading.
In the following exercises six parts of speech are presented, namely, Nouns, Verbs, Articles, Adjectives, Participles, and Adverbs; and I believe you are now prepared to parse them all igrecably to the systematick order, four times over. Those words in italicks are adverbs.
SYSTEMATICK ORDER OF PARSING. The order of parsing an ADVERB, is-an adverb, and why?—what sort ?---what does it qualify ?-RULE.
“ My friend has returned again; but his health is not very good.”
Again is an adverb, a word used to modify the sense of a verb of time indefinite, it expresses a period of time not pre cisely defined--it qualifies the verb “has returned,” according to
To-wit, tne infinitive of witan, to know. It means, to be known.
Ay or yea signifies have it, enjoy it. Yes is ay-es, have, possess, enjoy that. Our corrupt o-yes of the crier, is the French imperative, oyez, hear, listen.
Straight way-by a straight way. While--wheel; period in which some thing whiles or wheels itself round. Till—to while.
Per, Latin,--the English by. Perhaps-per haps, per chance.
These examples of derivation are given with the view to invite the attention of the intelligent puril to the Diversions of Purley, by Jolm Horne Tooke,"
Rule 29. Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectires, and other adverbs.
Not is an adverb, a word used to modify the sense of an adverb--of negation, it makes the assertion ncgative ; that is, it changes the proposition from an affirmative to a negative--and it qualifies the adverb " very," agreeably to Rule 29. Adverbs qualify verbs, f-c.
Very is an adverb, a word used to qualify the sense of an adjective of comparison, it compares the adjective “ good," and qualities it according to RULE 29. Adrerbs qualify adjeo tives, &c.
EXERCISES IN PARSING. The traveller described a lofty castle decaying gradually. Very few literary men ever become distinguished poets. The great Milton excels nol Homer. The Roman women once, toluntarily contributed thcir most precious jewels to save the city.
Many small streams uniting, form very large rivers. The river Funza falling perpendicularly, forms a vast cataract. Attentive servants always drive horses very carefrilly; negligent servants oflen drive horses very carelessly. Assiduous scholars improve very fast ; idle scholars learn none at all. Friendship oflen ends in love; but love in friendship, never.
Note. Several adverbs frequently qualify one verb. Have you walked? Not yet quite far enough, perhaps. Noi, yet, far, and enough, qualify “have walked" understood; perhaps qualiñes not; and quite qualifies far. The adverbs always and carefully bolh qualify the verb “drive:” the former expresses time, and the latter, manner. Once and voluntarily qualify the verb * contributed;" the former expresses number, and the latter, inanner. The word their you need not parse. The active verb to save has no nominative. The nouns love and friendship, following in, are in the objective case, and governed by that preposition.
REMARKS ON ADVERBS. When the words therefore, consequently, accordingly, and the like, are used in connexion with other conjunctions, they are au'verbs; but when they appear single, they are commonly consulered conjunctions.
The words when and where, and all others of the same nature, such as whence, whPher, whenever, wherever, till, unlıl, before, otherwise, while wherefore, &c. may be properly called alverbial conjunctions, because they participate the nature both of adverbs and conjunctions; of adverbs, as they donote the attributes either of time or place ; of conjunctions, as they conjoin sentences.
There are many words that are somctimes used as adjectives, and some. times as adverbs; as, “ More men than women were here; I am more diligent than he.” in the former sentence inure is evidently an adjective, for it is joined to a noun to qualify it; in the lattr it is an adverb, hecause it qua. lipies an adjective. There are others that are sometimes used as nouns, and sometimes as adverbs; as, to-day's lesson is ionger than yesterclay's.” to this example, lu-day and yesterday are nouns in tne possessive case; but
In phrases like the following, they are generally considered adverbs of time: • He came [to his] home yesterday, and will set out again to-day.” Here they are nouns, if we supply on before them.
"Where much (wealth, taient, or something else) is given, much increase, improvemenl] will be required; Much money has been expended; It is much better to write than starve.” In the first two of these examples, much is an adjective, because it qualifies a noun; in the last, an adverb, because it qualifies the adjective beiter. In short, you must dctermine to what part of speech a word belongs, by its sense, or by considering the manner in which it is associated with other words.
An adjective may, in general, be distinguished from an adverb by this rule; when a word qualifies a noun or pronoun, it is an adjective, but when it qualifies a verb, participle, adjective, or adverb, it is an adverb.
Prepositions are sometimes erroneously called adverbs, when their nouns are understood. “ He rides about ;" that is, about the town, country, or some-thing else. “She was near (the act or misfortune of 1 falling;" "But do not after that time or event] lay the blame on me." "He came down the ascent] from the hill;" “They listed him up (the gscent) out of the pit.” "The angels above ;" —above us—"Above these lower heavens, to us invisible, or dimly seen.”
Before you proceed to correct the following exercises in false Syntax, you may answer these
QUESTIONS NOT ANSWERED IN PARSING.
Does an adverb ever qualify a noun ?—What parts of speech does it qualify ?- When an adverb qualifies a verb or participle, what does it express - When an adverb qualifies an adjective or adverb, what does it generally express ?Compare some adverbs.—By what signs may an adverb be known ?-Give examples.-Repeat some adverbial phrases. -Name the different classes of adverbs.-Repeat some of each class.-Repeat the order of parsing an adverb.-What rule do you apply in parsing an adverb?
QUESTIONS ON THE NOTES. Repeat some adverbs that are formed by combining prepositions with auto verbs of place.-Repeat some that are composed of the article a and nouns. What part of speech are the words, therefore, consequently, &c. ?-What words are styled adverbial conjunctions - Why are they so called ? _ Is the same word sometimes used as an adjective, and sometimes as an adverb ? Give examples.
What is said of much?-By what rule can you distinguisb an adjective from an adverb? Do prepositions ever become adverbs
QUESTIONS ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL NOTES. How does the use of adverbs contribute to the conciseness of language? Illustrate the fact.-What is said of ly, like, and quick?—How are the following words composed, always, alune, only, also? What is the meaning of ever, never, not, adrift, ago, asunder, aloft, astray, awry?-_Give the sige nification of needs, to-wil, ye, yes, 0-yes, straightway, while, till, and per.
Note. Learners need not answer the questions on the Philosophical Notes, in this or any other Lecture, unless the teacher deem it expedient.
EXERCISES IN FALSE SYNTAX. . Note 3, to Rule 29. Adjectives are sometiines improperly applied as adverbs ; as, indifferent honest; excellent well; mi gerable poor :-She writes clegant; He is walking slow.
The adjectives indiferent, exccllent, and miserable, are here improperly used, because adjectives do not express the degree of adjectives or adverbs, Lut such modifications are denoted by adverbs. The phrases should, there fore, be," indifferently honest, cocellently well, miserably poor.” Elegant and slow are also inaccurate, for it is not the office of the adjective to express the manner, time, or place of the action of verbs and participles, but it is the office of the adverb. The constructions should be, "She writes elegantly; He is walking slo:oly."
You may correct the following examples several times over, and explain the principles that are violated.
FALSE SYNTAX. He speaks fluent, and reasons coherent. She reads proper, and writes very neat.
They once lived tolerable well, but now they are miserable poor.
The lowering clouds are moving slow.
He behaved himself submissive, and was exceeding careful not to give offence.
Note 4, To Rule 29. Adverbs are sometimes improperly used instead of adjectives; as, “ The tutor addressed hiin in terms rather warm, but suitably to his oflence."
The adverb suitably is incorrect. It does not express the manner of the action of the verb "addressed,” but it denotes the quality of the noun lerms understood ; for which reason it should be an adjective, onsable.
FALSE SYNTAX. The man was slowly wandering about, solaturity and distressed.
He lived in a manner agreeably to his condition.
Conformably to their vehemence of thought, was weir vehemenco of gesture.
I saw him previously to his arrival.