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LECTURE VII.

OF PREPOSITIONS.

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A Prcrosition is a word which serves to con nect words, and show the relation between them.

The term preposition is derived from the two Latin words, pre, which signifies before, and pono, to place. Prepositions are so called because they are mostly placed before the nouns ana pronouns which they govern in the objective case

The principal prepositions are presented in the following list which you may now commit to memory, and thus you will be en abled to distinguish them from other parts of speech wheneves you see them in composition.

A LIST OF THE PREPOSITIONS. of

after

betwixt To under

about

beside for through

against athwart by above down

towards with below before

notwithstanding in

between hehind around out of into beneath off

amidst instead of within from

on upon

throughout over against without beyond among underneath according 10

This list contains many words that are sometimes used as conjunctions, and sometimes as adverbs; but when you shall have become acquainted with the nature of the preposition, and of the conjunction and adverb too, you will find no difficulty in ascer taining to which of these classes any word belongs.

By looking at the definition of a preposition, you will notice, that it performs a double office in a sentence, namely, it connects words, and also shows a relation between them. I will first show you the use and importance of this part of speech as a connective. When corn is ripeOctober, it is gathered—the field-men

unto
across

PHILOSOPHICAL NOTES.

From, according to H. Tooke, is the Anglo-Saxon and Gothick noun firem, begir.ning, source, author. “He came from (beginning) Rochester.” Of he supposes to be a fragment of the Gothick and Saxon noun afora, consequence, offspring, follower. “Solomon, the son of (offspring) David. Of or ct, in its modern acceptation, signifies disjoined, surdered: A piece of (of) the loaf, is, a piece disjoined, or separated from the loaf. The fragrance of or off the rose.

For signifies cause. “I write for your satisfaction;" i. e. your satisfaction being the cause. By or be is the imperative bylh, of the Saxon beon, to be. W’ill, the imperative of withan, to join ; or, when equivalent to by, of wyr.

who go-hill-hill-baskets, whicn they put the ears. Your perceive, that in this sentence there is a total want of connexion and meaning; but let us fill up each vacancy with a preposition, and the sense will be clear. When corn is ripe, in October, it is gathered in the field by men, who go from hill to hill writh baskets, into which they put the ears.

From this illustration you are convinced, no doubt, that our language would be very deficient without prepositions to connect the various words of which it is composed. It would, in fact, amount to nothing but nonsense. There is, however, another part of speech that performs this office, namely, the conjunction. This will be explained in lecture IX.; in which lecture you will learn, that the nature of a preposition, as a connective particle, is nearly allied to that of a conjunction. In the next place I will show you how prepositions express a relation between words.

The boy's hat is under his arm. In this expression, what relution does the preposition under show? You know that hat and arm are words used as signs of two objects, or ideas; but under is not the sign of a thing you can think of: it is merely the siga of the relation existing between the two objects. Hence you may perceive, that since the word under is the sign of the relation existing between particular ideas, it also expresses a relation existing between the words hat and arm, which words are the repre. sentatives of those ideas.

The boy holds his hat in his hand. In this sentence the pro position in shows the relation existing between hat and hand, or the situation, or relative position, each has in regard to the other And, if I

say, The boy's hat is on his head, you perceive that on shows the relation between hat and lead. Again, in the expressions, The boy threw his hat up stairsunder the bedbehind the table through the window-over the house-across the street-into the water-and so on, you perceive that the several prepositions express the different relations existing between the than, to be. * I will go with him.” “I, join him, will go." In comes from the Gothick noun inna, the interiour of the body; a cave or cell. About, from boda, the first outward boundary. Among is the past part. of gamaen. gm, to mingle. Through or thorough is the Gothick substantive dauro, or the Teutonick Thuruh. It means passage, gate, door.

Before--be-fore, be-hind, be-low, be-sitė, be-sides, be-neath, are formed by combining the imperative be, with the nouns fore, hind, low, side, neath. Neath-Saxon neothan, neothe, has the same signification as nadir. Be. tween, be-twixtmbe and twair. A dual preposition. Be-yondbe-passed Beyond a place, means, be passed that place.

Notwithstanding--210-stand-ing-with, not-withstanding. “Any order to the contrary not-withstanding" (this orders) i e. not effectually withstanding or opposing it.

hat and the other nouns, stairs, bed, table, window, house, street, and water.

A preposition tells where a thing is: thus, " The pear is on the ground, under the tree.”

Prepositions govern the objective case, but they do not express an action done to some object, as an active-transitive verb for participle does. When a noun or pronoun follows a preposition, it is in the objective case, because it is the object of the relation expressed by the preposition, and not the object of an action.

I can now give you a more extensive explanation of the objective case, than that which was given in a former lecture. I have already informed you, that the objective case expresses the object of an action or of a relation ; and, also, that there are ihree parts of speech which govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case, namely, active-transitive verbs, participles derived from transitive verbs, and prepositions.) A noun or pronoun in the objective case, cannot be, at the same time, the object of an action and of a relation. It must be either the object of an action or of a relation. And I wish you particularly to remember, that whenever a noun or pronoun is governed by a transitive verb or participle, it is the object of an action; as, The tutor instructs his pupils ; or, The tutor is instructing his pupils; but whenever a noun or pronoun is governed by a preposition, it is the object of a relation ; as, The tutor gives good instruction to his pupils.

Before you proceed to parse the following examples, please to review this lecture, and then the whole seven in the manner previously recommended, namely, read one or two sentences, and then look off your book and repeat them two or three times over in your mind. This course will enable you to retain the most important ideas advanced. If

you wish to proceed with ease and advantage, you must have the subject-matter of the preceding lectures stored in your mind. Do not consider it an unpleasant task to comply with my requisitions, for when you shall have learned thus far, you will understand seven parts of speech; and only three more will remain to be learned.

If you have complied with the foregoing request, you may commit the following order, and then proceed in parsing.

SYSTEMATICK ORDER OF PARSING. The order of parsing a PREPOSITION, (isma preposition, and why?—what does it connect ? what relation does it show?

“He saw an antelope in the wilderness.” In is a preposition, a word which serves to connect words, and show the relation between them-it connects the words “antulope” and “wilderness"--and shows the relation between then.

Wilderzess is a noun, the name of a place-com. the name of a sort or species, neut. gend. it denotes a thing without sexthird pers. spoken of-sing. num. it implies but one-and in the objective case, it is the olaject of the relation expressed by the preposition in," and governed by it, according to

Rule 31. Prepositions govern the objective case)

The genius of our language will not allow us to say, Stand before he ; Hand the paper to they. (Prepositions require the pronoun following them to be in the objective form, position, or case; and this requisition amounts to government. Hence we say, “Stand before him ;" “ Hand the paper to them. Every preposition expresses a relation, and every relation must have an object : consequently, every preposition must be followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case.

EXERCISES IN PARSING. The all-wise Creator bestowed the power of speech upon man, for the most excellent uses. Augustus heard the orator pieading the client's cause, in a flow of most powerful eloquence. Fair Cynthia smiles serenely over nature's soft repose. Life's varying schemes no more distract the labouring mind of man. Septimius stabbed Pompey standing on the shore of Egypt.

A beam of tranquillity often plays round the heart of the truly pious man. The thoughts of former years glide over my soul, like swift-shooting meteors over Ardven's gloomy vales.

At the approach of day, night's swift dragons cut the clouds full fast ; and ghosts, wandering here and there, troop home to church-yards.

Love still pursues an ever devious race,

True to the winding lineaments of grace. Nute.—The words my and anel you need noi parse. The noun “meteors," following the adverb “like,” is in the objective case, and governed by unto understood, according to Note 2, under Rule 32. The noun “home” is governed by to understood, according to Rule 32.

REMARKS ON PREPOSITIONS AND VERBS. A noun or pronoun in the objective case, is often governed by a preposition understood; as, “Give hiin that book ;" that is, “Give that book to him ;”. Ortugral was one day wandering," &n, that is, on one clay. “Mer. cy gives affliction a grace ;” that is, Mercy gives a grace to affliction. See Note 1, under Rule 32.

To be able to make a proper use of propositions, particular attention is requisite. There is a peculiar propriety to be observed in the use of by and wilh; as, “He walks with a staff hy moonlight;" “ He was taken by stratat

gem, and killed with a sword.” Put the one preposition for the other, and say, “He walks by a staff with moonlight;" "He was taken wilh stratagem, and killed by a sword;” and it will appear, that the latter expressions differ from the former in signification, more than one, at first view, would be apt to inagine.

Verbs are often compounded of a verb and a preposition; as, to uphold, to withstand, to overlook} and this composition gives a new meaning to the verb; as, to understand, to withdraw, to forgive. But the preposition is more frequently placed after the verb, and separately from it, like an adverb; in which situation it does not less affect the sense of the verb, and give it a new meaning; and in all instances, whether the preposition is placed either before or after the verb, if it gives a new meaning to the verb, it may be considered as a part of the verb. Thus, to cast means to throw, but to cast up an account, signifies to compute it; therefore up is a part of the verb. The phrases, to fall on, to bear out, to give over, convey very different meanings from what they would if the prepositions on, out, and over, were nct used. Verbs of this kind are called compound verbs. You may now answer the following

QUESTIONS NOT ANSWERED IN PARSING. From what words is the term preposition derived ?-Why is it thus named ?—Repeat the list of prepositions.--Name the three parts of speech that govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case. When is a noun or pronoun in the objective case, the object of an action ?-When is it the object of a relation ?-Repeat the order of parsing a preposition.

What rule do you apply in parsing a noun or pronoun governed by a preposition ?-Does every preposition require an objective case after it ? --Is a noun or pronoun ever governed by a preposition understood ?–Give examples.- What is said of verbs comprunded of a verb and preposition ?-Give the origin and mean. ing of the prepositions explained in the Philosophical Notes.

LECTURE VIII.

OF PRONOUNS.

A PRONOUN is a word used instead of a noun, and generally to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word. A pronoun is, likewise, sometimes a substitute for a sentence, or mem ber of a sentence

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