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ENGLISH GRAMMAR

IN

FAMILIAR LECTURES;

ACCOMPANIED BY A

COMPENDIUM,

EMBRACING

A NEW SYSTEMATICK ORDER OF PARSING,

A NEW SYSTEM OF PUNCTUATION,

EXERCISES IN FALSE SYNTAX,

AND

A SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHICAL GRAMMAR,

IX NOTES:

TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

AN APPENDIX AND A KEY TO THE EXERCISES,

DESIGXED

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE LEARNERS.

HARVARD
BY SAMUEL KIRKHAM. UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY

Oh
ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTH EDITION, ENLARGED AND IMPROVED.

New=*ork,
COLLINS, BROTHER & CO

BOLLES & WILLIAMS, PRINTERS.

184 4.

Southern District of Neic-York, 28.

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the 241 day of August, A. D. 1829, in the - L. S. 54th year of the Independence of the United States of América, Samuel Kirk.

ham, of the said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as author, in the worils following, to wit:

** English Grammar in familiar lectures, accompanied by a Compendium, embracing a new systematick order of Parsing, a new system of Punctuation, exercises in false Syntax, and a System of Philosophical Grammar in notes: 10 which are added an Appendix, and a Key to the Exercises : designed for the use of Schools and Private Learners. By Samuel Kirkham. Eleverith Elition, enlarged and improved.” In con. formity to the act of congress of the United States, entitled "an act for the encour. ugement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the time therein mentioned." And also to an act entitled " an act supplementary to an act entitled an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the anthors and proprietors of such copies, during i he times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints."

FRED. J. BETTS, Clcrk of the Southern District of New York.

AN ESSAY ON ELOCUTION, DESIGNED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE LEARNERS,

BY SAMUEL KIRKHAM. This work is published by ROBINSON, Pratt, & Co. No. 259, PEARLSTREET, NEW-YORK—and will soon be sold by most of the Booksellers in the Union.

This Work is mainly designed as a Reading-Book for Schools. In the first part of it, the principles of reading are developed and explained in a scientifick and practica. manner, and so familiarly illustrated in their application to practical examples as to enable even the juvenile mind very readily to comprehend their nature and character, their design and use, and thus to acquire that high degree of excellence, buth in read. ing and speaking, which all desire, but to which few attain.

The last part of the work, contains Selections from the greatest masterpieces of rhetorical and poetical composition, both ancient and inodern. Many of these selecions are taken from the most elegant and classical American authors-writers whose noble productions have alrea:ly shed an unfailing lustre, and stamped iminoitality, upon the literature of our country. In the select part of the work, rhetorical marks are also employed to point out the application of the principles laid down in the first part.-The very favourable reception of the work by the publick, and its astonishingly rapid introduction into schools, since its first publication in 1833,excites in the author the most sanguine hopes in regard to its future success.

NOTICES. After a careful pernsal of this work, we are decidedly of opinion, that it is the only successful attempt of the kind. The rules are copious, and the author's explanations and illustrations are happily adapted to the comprehension of learners. No school should be without this book, and it ought to find a place in the library of eve gentleman who values the attainment of a just and forcible elocution.- Pittsburg Mer. April, 1834.

Mr. Kirkham has given rules for inflections and emphasis, and has followed them by illustrative examples, and these by remarks upon the inflection which he has adopted, and the reasons for his preference of one inflection to another- a most allmirable plan for such a work. Copious examples occur in which all the various inflections and the shades of emphasis are distinguished with great accuracy and clearness. The catechetical appendages of each chapter, give the work new value in a school, and the selections made for the exercise of scholars, evince good taste and judgment.

U. S. Gazette, Philadelphia, Sept. 17, 1934. The Essay now before is, needs not depend on any furiner work of its author for a borrowed reputation : it has intrinsick merits of its own. It lays down principles clearly and concisely. Il presents the reader with many new and judicious seleccions, both in prose and poetry; an i allogother evinces great industry, combined with taste and ingenuity.- Courier of Upper Canada, York, Oct. 12, 1833.

or the talent ad judgment of Mr. Kirzham, we have already had occasion to speak in terms of honest praise. llis work on Elocation raises him still higher in our esti. mation.-The bouk would be of great itility in schools-such a one as has long been wanted; and we are glad to see it forthcoming.-Baltimore Visiter, July, 1833.

Every facility for teaching Elocation, which I have so often needed, but never before found, is exacily furnished in this work :-principles are clearly and concisely laid down, and are nery happily a laptel to the comprehension of the learner. Thoroughly convi acest of its utilitw, Fshall lose no tiim in introducing it into my school, Hartford, Conn. Aug. 20, 1834.

NATHANIEL WEBB.

fr is well known that the recommendations which generally accompany now boots havo very little weight with the publick. This is as it should be, for that work which rests more on its written testimonials, than on its intrinsick merits for support, asserts no claims to permanent patronage. But recommendations which analyze the merits of a work, and which, by exhibiting its prominent features in a striking lighi, are calculated to carry conviction to the reader that the system reconmmended is meritorious, the author is proud to have it in his power to present in this volume, The following are some of the numerous testimonials which lic has received, and for which he tenders his grateful acknowledginents to those literary gentlemen to whose liberality and politeness he is indebted for them. More than six hundred others presented to the author, and many of which are equally flattering with those, he has not room to insert.

The following notice of this work is extracted from the “Western Review.” This journal is abiy con.lucted by the Rev. Timothy Flint, author of " Francis Berrian,"

History & Ġeography of the Miss. Valley," and many other popular and valuable works.

We had not, at that time, seen Mr. Kirkham's “Grammer in familiar Lectures," but have since given it a cursory perusal. If we comprehend the author's design, it is not so much to introduce new principles, as to render more easy and intelligible those which have been long established, and to furnish additional facilities to an accurate and thorough knowlcdge of our language. In this we think he has been suc. cessful.

It is to he expected that a modest, unassuming writer, on presenting himself bə fore the publick tribunal as an author, will, as far as consistent with his plan, avail himself of the authority of such as have wriiten well on the subject before him. Mr. Kirkham has accordingly followed Mr. Murray in the old beaten track of English writers on grammar, in the general principles of the science; endeavouring, at the szine time, to avoid whatever appeared to be erroneous or absurd in the writings of that author, and adopting an entirely new arrangement. The most useful matter contained in the treatise of Mr. Murray, is embraced in this ; but in the definitions and rules, it is simplified, and rendered much more intelligible. Though our author follows Mr. Murray, in the general principles of his work, he has, in numerous instances, differed froni him, pursuing a course that appears to be his own, and introducing some valuable impruvenients.

Among these may be mentioned some additional rules and explanatory notes ir syntax, the arrangement of the parts of speech, the mode of explaining them, manner of parsing, manner of explaining some of the pronouns, and the use of a synop, sis which presents the essentials of the science at one view, and is well calculated Lo afford assistance to learners.

In his arrangement of the parts of speech, Mr. Kirkham seems to have en leavour ed to follow the order of nature; and we are not able tu see how he could have done better. The noun and verb, as being the most important parts of speech, are first explained, and afterwarıls those which are considered in a secondary and subordinate character. By following this order, he has avoided the absurdity so common amung authors, of defining the minor parts before their principals, of which they were designed to be the appendages, and has rationally prepared ihe way for conduct ing the learner by easy advances to a correct view of the science.

In his illustrations of the various subjects contained in his work, our author appears to have aimed, not at a tlowery style, nor at the appearance of being learned, but at being understood. The ciearness and perspicuity of his remarks, and their application to familiar objects, are well calculated to arrest the attention, and aid the understanding, of the pupil, and thereby to lessen the labour of the instructer. The principles of the science are simplifierl, und rendered so perfectly eary of comprehension, we should think no ordinary mind, having such hely, could find them difficult. It is in this particular that the work appears to possess its chief merit, and on this account it cannot fail of being preferred to many others.

It gives us pleasure to remark, in reference to ihe success of the amiable and modest author whose work is before us, that we quote from the fifth edition.

Cincinnati, Aug. 24, 1827. The following is from the pen of a gentleman of the Bar, formerly a distinguished, Classical teacher. [Exiract from the "Nixtional Crisis.")

As a friend to literature, and especially to genuing merit. It is with peculiar pleasure I allude to a mutice in a late paper of this city, in which Mr. S. Kirkham proposes to deliver a course of Lectures on English Grammar. Tu such as feel intemesilo in acquiring a general and practical knowledge of Hills Woofw science, an

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opportunity, is now presented which ought not to be neglected. Having myselt witr::ssed, in several instances, within the last ten months, the practical results of Mr. Kirkham's plan, I am enabled to give a decisive opinion of its merits. The extensive knowledge acquired in one coursc by his class in Pittsburgh, and the great proficiency evinced by his classes elsewhere, are a demonstration of the utility and superiority of his method of ceaching, and a higher encomiun on him than I am able to bestow.

seen.

The principles on which Mr. Kirkhan's “New system of Grammar” is predica ted, are judiciously compiled, and happily and briefly expressed ; but the great merit of his work consists in the lucid illustrations accompanying the principles, and the simple and yrarlaal manner in which it conducts the learner along from step to step through the successive stages of the science. The explanations blended with the theory, are addressed to the understanding of the pupil in a manner so familiar, that they cannot": il to excite in him a deep interest ; and whatever system is calcnlated to bring into requisition the mental powers, must, I conceive, be productive of good results. In my humble opinion, the system of teaching introduced into this work, will enable a diligent pupil to acquire, without any other aid, a practical knowledge of grammar, in less than one-fourth part of the time usually devoted,

My views of Mr. Kirkham's system are thus publickly given, with the greater pleasure, on account of the literary empiricisms which have been so extensively practised in many parts of the western country. Cincinnati, April 26, 1826.

From Mr. Blood, Principal of the Chambersburgh Academy, Pa. Mr. Kirkham,– It is now alınost twenty years since I became a teacher of youth, and, during this period, I have nut only consulted all, but have used many, of the clifferent systems of English grainmar that have fallen in my way; and, sir, I do assure you, without the lcast wish to flatter, that your far exceeds any I liave yet

Your arrangement and systematick order of parsing are most excellent; and ex. perience has convinced me, (having used it, and it only, for the last twelve or thir. ieen months,) that a scholar will learn more of the nature and principles of our language in one quarter, from your system, than in a whole year from any other I had previously used." I do, therefore, most cheerfully and earnestly recomniend it to the publick at large, and especially to those who, anxious to acquire a knowledge of our language, aro destitute of the advantages of an instructer. Yous, very respectfully,

SAMUEL BLOOD. Chamoersburgn Academy, Feb. 12, 1825. From Mr. N. R. Smith, editor of a valuable literary journal, styled “The Hesperus." Mr. Kirkham,

Sir, I have examined your Lectures on English Grammar with that degree of minuteness which enables me to yield my unqualified approbation of the work as a grammatical system. The engaging manner in which you have explained the ele ments of grammar, and accommolated them to the capacitics of youth, is an amplo illustration of the utility of your plan. In addition to this, the critical attention you have paid to an analytical developennent of grammatical ;»rinciples, while it is calculated to encourage the perseverance of young students in the march of improvement, is sufficient, also, to employ tha researches of the literary connoisseur. I trust thai your valuable compilation will be speedily introduced into schools and academiese With respect, yuurs,

N. R. SMITH, A. M Pittsburghi, March 22, 1825. From Mr. Jungmann, Principal of the Frerlerick Lutheran Academy :-Extract

Having carefully examined Mr. S. Kirkham's new system of “ English Grammar in familiar Lectures," I am satisfied that the pre-eminent advantages it possesses over our common systerns, will soon convince the publick, that it is not one of those feeble efforts of quackery which have so often obtruded upon our notice. Its decided superiority over all other systems, consists in adapting the subject-matter to tho capacity of the young learner, and the happy mode adopted of communicating it to his mind in a manner so clear and simple, that he can easily comprehend the nature and the application of every principle ihat comes before him.

In short, all the intricacies of the science are plucidated so clearly, I am confident that even a private learner, of common docility, can, by perusing this system attor lively, acquire a better practical knowledge of this imporiant branch of literaturo in three monins, than is ordinarily obtained in one year.

JOIIN E. JUNGMANN. Frederick, Md. Sept. 17, 1823

" little gram:

EXTRACT.

Extract: from Do Will Clinton, lato Gov, of Now-Yort. I consider the Compendium of English Grammar, by Samuel Kirkham, a work deserving encouragement, and well calculated to facilitate the acquisition of this useful scienoe.

DE WITT CLINTON. Albany, Sept. 25, 1824.

New York, July 29, 1829. S. Kirkham, Esq.-I have examined your Grammar with attention, and with a per. ticular view to benefit the Institution under my charge. I am fully satisfied, that it is the best form in which Murray's principles have been given to ihe publick. The lectures are ample, and given in so familiar and easy language, as to be readily un derstood, even by a tyro in grammar.

I feel it due to you to say, that I commenced the examination of your work, under a strong frejudice against it, in consequence of the numerous “improved systems" with which the publick has been inundated, of late, most of which are by no nieans improvements on Murray, but the productions of individuals whom a mar has rendered grammatically insane." My convictions, therefore, are the result of investigation. I wish you, Sir, success in your publication. Respectfully,

EBER WHEATON,

Pr. of Mechanick's Society School. With the opinion of Mr. Wheaton respecting Mr. Kirkham's English Grasa mar, we heartily concur.

NATIAN STARK, Pr. Acai

(Rev.) JOHN JOHNSTON, Newburgh, Aug. 4, 1829.

(Rev.) WM. S. HEYER. From the Rev. C. P. McIlvaine, and others. So far as I have examined the plan of grammatical instruction by Samuel Kirke ham, I am well satisfied that it meets the wants of elementary schools in this branch, and deserves to be patronised.

CHARLES P. McILVAINE. Bruoklyn, July 9, 1829. We fully concur in the above,

ANDREW HAGEMAN,

E. M. JOHNSON. From the partial examination which I have given Mr. S. Kirkham's English Grammar, I do not hesitate to recommend it to the publick as the best of the class I have Un seen, and as filling up an important and almost impassable chasm in works on granımatical science.

D. L. CARROLL. Brooklyn, L. I. June 29, 1829. We fully concur in the foregoing recommendation. B. B. HALLOCK,

E. KINGSLEY,

T. S. MAYBON. From A. W. Dodge, Esq.

New-York, July 15, 1829. The experience of every one at all acquainted with the business of instruction, must have taught him that the study of grammar, important as it is to every class of learners, is almost invariably a dry and uninteresting study to young beginners, and for the very obvious reason, that the systems in general use in the schools, are far beyond the comprehension of youth, and ill adapted to their years. Henco it is, that their lessons in this department of learning, are considered as tasks, and it committed at all, committed to the memory, without enlightening their understand. ings; so that many a pupil who has been through the English grammar, is totally unacquainted with the nature even of the simplest parts of speech.

The work of Mr. Kirkham on grammar, is well calculated to remedy these evils, and supply a deficiency which has been so long and so seriously sell in the imper: sect education of youth in the elementary knowledge of their own language. By a simple, familiar, and lucid method of treating the subject, he has rondered what was before irksome and unprofitable, pleasing and instructive. In one word, the grammar of Mr. Kirkham furnishes a clew by which the youthful mind is guided through the intricate labyrinth of verbs, nouns, and pronouns; and the path which has been heretofore so difficult and uninviting, as to dampen the ardour of youth, and waste their energies in fruitless attempts to surmount its obstacles, is cleared of these oba Btructions by this pioneer to the youthful muud, and planted, at every turn, with friendly guitle-boards to direct them in the right roarl. The slightest perusal of cha work Vluded to, will convince cven the most skeptical of the truth of these remarks. and satisfy every one who is not wedded by prejudice to old rules and forms, that it will incet the wants of the community. ALLEN W. DODGE.

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