Critique of Judgment

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Cosimo, Inc., Jun 1, 2007 - Philosophy - 284 pages
In the Critique of Judgement, Kant offers a penetrating analysis of our experience of the beautiful and the sublime. He discusses the objectivity of taste, aesthetic disinterestedness, the relation of art and nature, the role of imagination, genius and originality, the limits of
representation, and the connection between morality and the aesthetic. He also investigates the validity of our judgements concerning the degree in which nature has a purpose, with respect to the highest interests of reason and enlightenment.
The work profoundly influenced the artists, writers, and philosophers of the classical and romantic period, including Hegel, Schelling, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche. In addition, it has remained a landmark work in fields such as phenomenology, hermeneutics, the Frankfurt School, analytical
aesthetics, and contemporary critical theory. Today it remains an essential work of philosophy, and required reading for all with an interest in aesthetics.
 

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Contents

Preface
1
is a transcendental principle of Judgment
13
Of the aesthetical representation of the purposiveness
19
Critique of the Aesthetical Judgment
27
Second Moment of the judgment of taste viz according to quantity
33
Third Moment of judgments of taste according to the relation
40
Fourth Moment of the judgment of taste according to
54
Analytic of the Sublime
61
45 Beautiful Art is an art in so far as it seems like nature
111
46 Beautiful Art is the art of genius
112
47 Elucidation and confirmation of the above explanation of Genius
113
48 Of the relation of Genius to Taste
115
49 Of the faculties of the mind that constitute Genius
117
50 Of the combination of Taste with Genius in the products of beautiful Art
122
51 Of the division of the beautiful arts
123
52 Of the combination of beautiful arts in one and the same product
127

24 Of the divisions of an investigation into the feeling of the sublime
63
A Of the Mathematically Sublime
64
26 Of that estimation of the magnitude of natural things which is requisite for the Idea of the Sublime
66
27 Of the quality of the satisfaction in our judgments upon the Sublime
71
B Of the Dynamically Sublime in Nature
74
29 Of the modality of the judgment upon the sublime in nature
77
General remark upon the exposition of the aesthetical reflective Judgment
79
Deduction of pure aesthetical judgments
82
30 The Deduction of aesthetical judgments on the objects of nature must not be directed to what we call Sublime in nature but only to the Beautiful
90
31 Of the method of deduction of judgments of Taste
91
32 First peculiarity of the judgment of Taste
92
33 Second peculiarity of the judgment of Taste
94
34 There is no objective principle of Taste possible
95
35 The principle of Taste is the subjective principle of Judgment in general
96
36 Of the problem of a Deduction of judgments of Taste
97
37 What is properly asserted a priori of an object in a judgment of Taste
98
39 Of the communicability of a sensation
100
40 Of Taste as a kind of sensus communis
101
41 Of the empirical interest in the Beautiful
103
42 Of the intellectual interest in the Beautiful
105
43 Of Art in general
109
44 Of beautiful Art
110
53 Comparison of the respective aesthetical worth of the beautiful arts
128
54 Remark
131
Dialectic of the Aesthetical Judgment
137
57 Solution of the antinomy of Taste
138
58 Of the Idealism of the purposiveness of both Nature and Art as the unique principle of the aesthetical Judgment
144
59 Of Beauty as the symbol of Morality
148
Of the method of Taste
151
Critique of the Teleological Judgment
153
Analytic of the Teleological Judgment
155
63 Of the relative as distinguished from the inner purposiveness of nature
158
64 Of the peculiar character of things as natural purposes
161
65 Things regarded as natural purposes are organised beings
163
66 Of the principle of judging of internal purposiveness in organised beings
166
67 Of the principle of the teleological judging of nature in general as a system of purposes
167
68 Of the principle of Teleology as internal principle of natural science
170
Dialectic of the Teleological Judgment
173
70 Representation of this antinomy
174
71 Preliminary to the solution of the above antinomy
175
72 Of the different systems which deal with the purposiveness of nature
176
Methodology of the Teleological Judgment
198
General remarks on Teleology
244
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Page xv - That is the best part of beauty, which a picture cannot express ; no, nor the first sight of the life.

About the author (2007)

The greatest of all modern philosophers was born in the Baltic seaport of Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler and never left the vicinity of his remote birthplace. Through his family pastor, Immanuel Kant received the opportunity to study at the newly founded Collegium Fredericianum, proceeding to the University of Konigsberg, where he was introduced to Wolffian philosophy and modern natural science by the philosopher Martin Knutzen. From 1746 to 1755, he served as tutor in various households near Konigsberg. Between 1755 and 1770, Kant published treatises on a number of scientific and philosophical subjects, including one in which he originated the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system. Some of Kant's writings in the early 1760s attracted the favorable notice of respected philosophers such as J. H. Lambert and Moses Mendelssohn, but a professorship eluded Kant until he was over 45. In 1781 Kant finally published his great work, the Critique of Pure Reason. The early reviews were hostile and uncomprehending, and Kant's attempt to make his theories more accessible in his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) was largely unsuccessful. Then, partly through the influence of former student J. G. Herder, whose writings on anthropology and history challenged his Enlightenment convictions, Kant turned his attention to issues in the philosophy of morality and history, writing several short essays on the philosophy of history and sketching his ethical theory in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). Kant's new philosophical approach began to receive attention in 1786 through a series of articles in a widely circulated Gottingen journal by the Jena philosopher K. L. Reinhold. The following year Kant published a new, extensively revised edition of the Critique, following it up with the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), treating the foundations of moral philosophy, and the Critique of Judgment (1790), an examination of aesthetics rounding out his system through a strikingly original treatment of two topics that were widely perceived as high on the philosophical agenda at the time - the philosophical meaning of the taste for beauty and the use of teleology in natural science. From the early 1790s onward, Kant was regarded by the coming generation of philosophers as having overthrown all previous systems and as having opened up a whole new philosophical vista. During the last decade of his philosophical activity, Kant devoted most of his attention to applications of moral philosophy. His two chief works in the 1790s were Religion Within the Bounds of Plain Reason (1793--94) and Metaphysics of Morals (1798), the first part of which contained Kant's theory of right, law, and the political state. At the age of 74, most philosophers who are still active are engaged in consolidating and defending views they have already worked out. Kant, however, had perceived an important gap in his system and had begun rethinking its foundations. These attempts went on for four more years until the ravages of old age finally destroyed Kant's capacity for further intellectual work. The result was a lengthy but disorganized manuscript that was first published in 1920 under the title Opus Postumum. It displays the impact of some of the more radical young thinkers Kant's philosophy itself had inspired. Kant's philosophy focuses attention on the active role of human reason in the process of knowing the world and on its autonomy in giving moral law. Kant saw the development of reason as a collective possession of the human species, a product of nature working through human history. For him the process of free communication between independent minds is the very life of reason, the vocation of which is to remake politics, religion, science, art, and morality as the completion of a destiny whose shape it is our collective task to frame for ourselves.

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