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Forward stationed or deployed military presence provides the leading edge of U.S. combat power and forms the cornerstone of deterrence. Within the Asia-Pacific region this equates to roughly 100,000 forward-deployed personnel located primarily in the Republic of Korea and Japan. These forces deter conflict, dissuade competition, respond to crisis, man the infrastructure to receive follow-on forces, and fight if necessary. USPACOM is committed to developing the most effective regional command and control constructs to maximize the employment of our forward-deployed forces. In conjunction with ongoing DoD restructuring initiatives, we are reviewing these command and control structures and our force posture to ensure they are consistent with today's operational requirements and geo-political realities. The goal is to consolidate and transform our headquarters in Japan, the Republic of Korea, and throughout the region to provide immediately employable forces capable of decisive operational effects. Of course, these improvements will be undertaken in close consultation with our allies.
Prototype command and control constructs such as the Joint Mission Force or Standing Joint Force Headquarters leverage both enhanced joint warfighting equities and transformation dividends. Along with our efforts to improve our command structure, we will continue to develop diversified access throughout the region. We foresee ongoing requirements to consolidate and improve our facilities in Korea, Japan, and other locations in the region. We also expect to enhance our access to facilities in Southeast Asia (SEA) and the South Asia Indian Ocean (SAIO) area to meet regional and global requirements and support the GWOT and other operational or contingency demands.
Our transformation and experimentation efforts are necessary steps in advancing improvements to the speed of action and effectiveness of joint operations across strategic, operational, and tactical force levels. To date, our new standing operating procedures and enhancements to collaboration have yielded as much as two weeks reduction in time to stand up and deploy a Joint Task Force (JTF) in response to a contingency. By experimenting with and fielding mature technologies and prototype decision tools—placing them in the hands of operators well within the traditional acquisition cycle time—we have established information superiority and enhanced efficiency for theater command and control. With continued support, we can zeroin on even greater improvements to JTF effectiveness, such as integration and synchronization of operational fire and maneuver, surpassing information superiority with decision superiority, and expediting the fielding of mature technologies and concept prototypes to forward-deployed JTF commanders.
Within USPACOM, our Joint Mission Force (JMF) initiative provides the coherent framework for experimentation and transformation to enhance JTF operations across the spectrum of missions from forcible entry through humanitarian assistance. This mature initiative has allowed us to focus our transformational efforts toward a specific end-objective: seamless joint operations. The JMF concept will serve as USPACOM's segue to implementing the Standing Joint Force Headquarters as directed by current DoD plans.
Each year during exercises such as COBRA GOLD, our multilateral exercise cohosted with Thailand, and TANDEM THRUST, our theater-wide biennial joint exercise with Australia, we experiment with JMF initiatives that address our "Top Ten Challenges" to enhancing JTF speed of action and effectiveness. By experimenting while we exercise, we can accurately assess the military utility of new technologies and procedures. As a direct result of success during exercises, JMF has fielded several key technologies within USPACOM's designated JTFs. Over the past year, Bandwidth Monitoring and Control devices have given our JTFs dynamic control of limited bandwidth for critical communications. The Automated Deep Operations Coordination System (ADOCS) now provides USPACOM Headquarters Joint Operations Center and our JTFs an interoperable tool for sharing a common operational picture for dynamic tracking and targeting and for conducting personnel recovery operations. JMF has provided our designated JTFs with a suite of collaborative tools and the training required for planning, executing, and assessing joint operations. Our design and implementation of a standard JMF web tool provides an internet "one-stop shop" for JTF real-time information sharing, planning, and execution.
Additionally, JMF has operationalized other important command-wide capabilities such as our Combined Operations Wide Area Network (COWAN) for secure operations with our coalition partners, the Asia-Pacific Area Network (APAN) for civilmilitary and non-government organization operations with coalition forces, telemedicine for joint medical operations (JMO-T), and language translation capability such as DARPA's "Phraselators."
To bridge the gap between our major joint exercises, hone readiness, and provide periodic spiral development opportunities, USPACOM conducts routine command and control exercises (C2X). These short duration, vignette-driven exercises not only test our JTF command and control procedures, they also provide an important venue for spiral technology and procedural development and fielding. This JMF initiative has proven effective in USPACOM as a readiness-enhancer.
Over the next 2 years, with your support, USPACOM's Joint Mission Force will integrate emerging technologies into information operations and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance management. Our transformation and experimentation initiatives include our coalition partners.
In Korea, we have worked Integrated Total Asset Visibility and language translators during exercise ULCHI FOCUS LENS. USFK has the lead for the Theater Precision Strike Operations ACTD and this year is sponsoring the Theater EffectsBased Operations ACTD.
We have installed our JMF Web tool on the Japan Self-Defense Force bilateral secure wide-area network. We also have an information sharing agreement with Japan, and Japan has used Coalition Rear Area Security Command and Control in exercises such as KEEN EDGE and YAMA SAKURA.
As COBRA GOLD 2002 participants, Singapore Armed Forces and Royal Supreme Thai Command members were directly involved with our initiatives for collaboration tools, virtual Civil Military Operations Center, and COWAN. Additionally, Singapore is participating in the SPARTAN ACTD and is pursuing involvement in other ACTDs, such as RESTOPS and JTF WARNET (Wide Area Relay Network).
The JTF WARNET initiative approved by the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) on 25 April 2002 provides organic, wireless secure Internet Protocolbased connectivity among tactical components of a JTF. WARNET applications, interfaces, and procedures enhance JTF command and control by sharing tactical situational awareness data among service command and control systems, enabling joint fires and collaborative planning and execution. JTF WARNET provided tactical-level force integration during MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE 2002. We will conduct WARNET regional tests and a pre-deployment exercise in Hawaii and Japan in FY03 before WARNET becomes a JTF operational capability in FY04, culminating in COBRA GOLD 2004.
USPACOM served as the host Combatant Command for the Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (JWID) 2002 and recently hosted JWID 2003 this June. For the first time, Japan, Korea, and Singapore were invited to sit on the Coalition Task Force (CTF) staff. Their inclusion in the traditional mix of U.S., NATO, U.K, Canada, and Australia participants successfully pushed the envelope on coalition interoperability, demonstrating challenges and developing solutions.
The Regional Defense Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program complements the IMET program. DoD funding has sent foreign military officers to U.S. military institutions and selected regional centers for non-lethal education. This program has provided regional combatant commands with additional flexibility in executing our security cooperation strategies and has had an immediate and positive impact in encouraging reform, professionalism, and regional cooperation in addressing counterterrorism and other transnational threats.
The fellowship focus for USPACOM has been toward educational programs that encourage these advancements among Asia-Pacific nations addressing transnational threats with a focus on counter-terrorism. Specific courses have assisted in minimizing terrorist threats in the Asia-Pacific region, severing links between indigenous terrorist groups and global terrorist networks, allowing the establishment of a more professional military, developing stronger mutual security partnerships, and enhancing theater security cooperation. We are using the program to provide nonlethal training to Indonesian, Malaysian, and Philippine military officers at U.S. military educational institutions. U.S. military courses provide the basics for success in any military operation. A secondary benefit is the exposure students receive to the higher standards of ethics and behavior associated with a professional military under competent civilian control. Your continued support in providing this flexible funding alternative is appreciated.
C2 for Coalitions. The Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT) Program involves a group of military planners from the U.S. and many nations in USPACOM's Area of Interest. The purpose of MPAT is to increase operational interoperability among participating countries' interoperable planners who can rapidly augment a multinational force headquarters in response to a regional crisis. Using multinational but standardized skills and procedures, MPAT planners would plan and execute coalition operations to support a multinational and interagency response to a small-scale contingency. Through a series of workshops and information exchange events, including four major crisis action planning exercises, MPAT members have developed a knowledge base of the various national crisis action planning procedures in the Asia-Pacific region. They have also developed a strong working relationship with each other. Military planners from over 25 countries and representatives from the UN and various non-governmental and international organizations have attended these workshops.
As part of the MPAT initiative, we and other nations in the region are developing multinational force Standing Operating Procedures (MNF SOP) that any nation leading a coalition crisis response relief effort can use. This MNF SOP has coalition/ combined task force activation, forming, and planning procedures focused on military operations other than war (MOOTW), from humanitarian assistance through peace operations, and includes counter-terrorism aspects. Planners from 30 nations practice and validate the MNF SOP during MPAT and other multinational exercises each year.
Since the Asia-Pacific region does not have a regional NATO-like organization, the MPAT and MNF SOP efforts represent the major regional program aimed at developing multinational procedures and maintaining a cadre of multinational military planners using common planning and operating procedures for coalition operations. USPACOM's Internet-based Asia Pacific Area Network (APAN) enables the working-level communications required to develop these procedures. APAN's easily accessible collaborative capability enables us to extend regional dialogues begun in functional forums such as CHOD conferences into exercises and operations that improve our regional response to the growing range of military missions we face today. The ability to place instructional material on APAN for mutual benefit of the U.S. and Asia-Pacific partners would enhance the USPACOM Theater Security Cooperation program and U.S. national security interests. The provision of internet-based training and education should include such programs as Advanced Distributed Learning and similar internet tools. USPACOM could thereby more effectively use focused military education programs to develop regional skills required to accomplish cooperative security missions, improve civil-military relations, increase respect for human rights, and strengthen democratic principles.
I would like to express our appreciation for past congressional support of the AsiaPacific Regional Initiative (APRI) appropriations—support that has ensured a robust beginning for information operations programs and other coalition building events that improve training, doctrine, and experimentation. As we continue with the MPAT and MNF SOP development, we will improve the capabilities and interoperability of countries in the region to support operations that we may lead while enhancing the ability of other countries to lead coalition operations as well.
Joint Task Force Full Accounting (JTF-FA). Achieving the fullest possible accounting of Americans is a high USPACOM priority, and we will continue to devote the necessary personnel and resources to obtain the answers the POW/MIA families so richly deserve. During Fiscal Year 2002, JTF-FA conducted 10 joint field activities (JFAs)—4 in Vietnam, 5 in Laos, and 1 in Cambodia. The JTF-FA field teams investigated 211 cases and excavated 50 sites. In total, they recovered and repatriated remains believed to be those of Americans unaccounted-for from the war in Southeast Asia from 27 sites (9 in Vietnam, 12 in Laos, and 6 in Cambodia). Furthermore, 31 individuals from recovery operations were identified and returned to their loved ones during this period. JTF-FA will maintain its pace of operations in FY03, with 10 JFAs scheduled—4 in Vietnam, 5 in Laos, and one in Cambodia. JTF-FA will also conduct an underwater survey in China.
Following Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz's direction to determine the feasibility of merging JTF-FA and the Army's Central Identification Laboratories, Hawaii, we have put in place a comprehensive plan of action and milestones to ensure a smooth merger and standup date of 1 October 2003. Merging of the two units under a single command is operationally sound and will clearly demonstrate our government's commitment to our unaccounted for citizens. Three critical items remain. First, realignment of the Department of the Army's Central Identification Laboratory Hawaii (CILHI) funding to the Department of the Navy as Executive Agent for USPACOM and the merged organization. Second, transfer of Department of the Army civilian positions and functions to the Department of the Navy. Third, determining the permanent location of this new organization with the attended adjustment and advancement to the CILHI approved FY-08 MILCON headquarters building project.
Land Partnership Plan (LPP). The Commander of U.S. Forces Korea (USFK) has reached agreement with the ROK government on an LPP that will consolidate U.S. force presence. The plan will reduce the number of major U.S. bases in Korea from 41 to 23 while significantly enhancing training and combined warfighting capability—better supporting our long-term regional strategy. The LPP will also have a significant positive affect on the quality of life of our servicemen and women and their families assigned to our forces on the peninsula. Our partner is committed— the LPP has received the full backing of the Korean government and its National Assembly. Further enhancements and efficiencies are being discussed as part of the Future of the Alliance Initiative. We are working closely with U.S. Forces Korea to ensure our efforts result in enduring footprint improvements that meet both peninsular and regional security goals.
Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs). USPACOM continues to lead in innovating tactics, techniques, procedures, and concepts of operations that make the nation's investment in science and technology productive for our Soldiers, Sailors, Marines and Airmen in the field. We do so through a continual cycle of experimentation, demonstration, and special projects aimed at our early understanding of emerging technologies and their impact on military operations in the Asia-Pacific region.
Transformation depends heavily on ACTDs. Today we are involved in 19 ACTD projects—more than any other regional command. We have distributed the Transformation workload across the whole theater—almost all service component and Sub-Unified Commanders and most of my Staff Directors have responsibility for executing one or more ACTDs.
Our new FY03 ACTD program will provide us with new tactical capabilities. The Overwatch ACTD will give us a capability to detect and pinpoint sniper fire in an urban environment, enhancing security and situational awareness for our troops in the field. In addition to our new ACTDs, we have pioneered co-development of technology with Singapore with the SPARTAN Unmanned Surface Vessel ACTD. This ACTD provides technological developments to improve capabilities for multi-mission packages in Mine Warfare, force protection, precision strike, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Additionally, it will enhance battlespace awareness and increase force protection for surface and subsurface operations through the use of modular sensor packages.
The ACTD program is clear proof that when system developers and operators come together we can get useful military products into the hands of the user faster than with standard acquisition. However, this is only true if the technology successfully transitions into a program of record. I am proud to report that we will successfully transition all five of our ACTDs completed this year. Soon all combatant commanders will reap resulting benefits in the areas of Joint Fire Control, personnel recovery, small unit logistics, telemedicine, and decision-support tools from our completed projects.
Our Joint Experimentation program focuses on Joint Task Force (JTF) operations. It is fully coordinated with the U.S. Joint Forces Command's Joint Experimentation Program and includes technology insertion experiments during our regular exercises to advance our state of practice of JTF operations, both in the U.S. only venue and in coalition venues. This year, we executed the first two major experiments. The first occurred as part of our C2X exercise series where we train to establish command and control of a deployed JTF. The experiment augmented our normal C4I surveillance and reconnaissance equipment suites with new capabilities to manage and control information flow on the JTF networks and provide enhanced fires management capabilities across the joint force. Our second experiment occurred in a coalition environment during the COBRA GOLD exercise with Thailand, Australia, Singapore, and Malaysia. We also added new technology from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to improve network security and the commander's understanding of the war plan. We are finding that by experimenting as we exercise, we can provide a continuous series of warfighting improvements that are field tested in joint and combined operations before we make key procurement decisions.
I've highlighted just a few of the experimentation and modernization initiatives in USPACOM. Our initiatives, like those of other Regional Combatant Commanders and the Services, in concert with USJFCOM, promise to modernize the force and enhance mission capability. We are working hard with USJFCOM to synchronize and bring coherence, prioritization, and continuity to the transformation of our forces.
America's Armed Forces in the Pacific continue to promote security, peace, and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. Through the professional efforts of our dedicated men and women, we continue to assure our allies, dissuade our adversaries and deter aggression. We are relentlessly pursuing terrorists, improving our force protection posture and maintaining our readiness so that if called upon, we will decisively defeat any adversary. And while executing these missions, we are transforming our security institutions to best meet security demands for the foreseeable future.
U.S. Pacific Command's priorities for the near term remain unchanged: sustaining and supporting the Global War on Terrorism; improving our Readiness and Joint Warfighting Capability; improving the Quality of Service for our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines; reinforcing the Constants in the Pacific Region; and promoting change and improving our Asia-Pacific Defense Posture for the Future.
The men and women of the U.S. Pacific Command welcome this opportunity to tell their story. The support of the Congress and the American people is greatly appreciated. Thank you.
Mr. Leach. Secretary LaFleur.
STATEMENT OF CHRISTOPHER LaFLEUR, SPECIAL ENVOY FOR NORTHEAST ASIA SECURITY CONSULTATIONS, BUREAU FOR EAST ASIAN AND PACIFIC AFFAIRS, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Mr. Lafleur. Mr. Chairman, with your permission, I have covered a fair range of regional issues in my written testimony, and I would like to concentrate, if I may, in my oral remarks on the two areas in which I am principally focused in my work, which is on our discussions with the Republic of Korea and Japan on the future of our alliances.
Mr. Leach. That is very appropriate, but particularly appropriate if you would pull the microphone closer.
Mr. Lafleur. Thank you, sir.
We began our discussions with both the Republic of Korea and with Japan earlier this year, and it is a particularly appropriate time in many ways to be reviewing the future of our alliances with both of our partners.
First and most obviously, we are at the half century mark in our alliances with both countries. We celebrated that with the Japanese 2 years ago in San Francisco, and this year marks the 50th anniversary of our security alliance with the Republic of Korea.
In addition, of course, we have as an ongoing task the adjustment of our respective defense postures to the end of the cold war as well as to the emergence of new and serious challenges to our security, most notably our efforts to deal with the war on terrorism.
In addition, of course, there is the advancement in military technology, which has opened up new possibilities for us to contribute to the defense of our allies, and for their part, our allies are obviously not the countries with which we made these agreements some 50 years ago. They are strong global actors who have new capabilities, and our alliances should definitely reflect that.
These discussions fit into our broader objectives of reinforcing our alliances throughout the region, strengthening our cooperation with like-minded countries, seeking areas of cooperation, even greater areas of cooperation, with other countries, as well as to deter any additional threats and challenges that we may face in the region.
We have started and have covered the most ground, I think, with the Republic of Korea, in large part because we are building on some considerable work that has been done over the years in this area already. Agreements had already been reached in the early 1990s, for example, that we would be moving the bulk of our forces out of the Yongsan Garrison located in downtown Seoul, and the question was how to proceed more expeditiously with implementation.
We had also more recently come to some agreements on consolidating our physical presence in the ROK in what is called the Land