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past, but also conveys an allusion to the present time.
63. The pluperfect tense represents a thing not only as past, but also as prior to some other point of time specified in the sentence.
64. The first future tense represents an action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time when.
65. The second future tense intimates that the action will be fully accomplished, at or before the time of another future action or event.
66. Auxiliary or helping verbs are those, by the help of which the principal verbs are chiefly conjugated; they are do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, with their variations; and let and must, which have no variation.
67. The conjugation of a verb is the regular combination and arrangement of its several numbers, persons, moods, and tenses. 68. The verb to be is conjugated as follows:
Plural 1. I am.
1. We are. 2. Thou art, or you are,
2. Ye or you are. 3. He, she, or it is.
3. They are.
Plural. 1. I was.
1. We were. 2. Thou wast, or you were.
2. Ye or you were. 3. He was.
3. They were.
Plural. 1. I have been.
1. We have been. 2. Thou hast been, or you have 2. Ye or you have been. been.
3. They have been. 3. He has been.
Plural. 1. I had been.
1. We had been. 2. Thou hadst been, or you had 2. Ye or you had been. been.
3. They had been. 8. He had been.
First Future Tense.
Plural. 1. I shall or will be.
1. We shall or will be. 2. Thou shalt or will be, or you 2. Ye or you shall or will be. shall or will be.
3. They shall or will be. 3. He shall or will be.
Second Future Tense.
Plural. 1. I shall have been.
1. We shall have been. 2. Thou wilt heve been, or you 2. Ye or you will have been. will have been.
3. They will have been. 3. He will have been.
Plural. 1. I may or can be.
1. We may or can be. 2. Thou mayst or canst be, or 2. Ye or you may or can be.
you may or can be. 3. They may or can be. 3. He may or can be.
Plural. 1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, or should be.
should be. 2. Thou mightst, &c. or you 2. Ye or you might, coulel, would,
might, could, would, or or should be.
3. They might, could, would, of 3. He might, could, would, or should be.
* This form of the verb in the potential mood has usually heen ranked in the imperfect tense; and it is frequently used in a manner which will bear the signification of that tense; but it is noi less frequently found in the present or fu. ture. Indeed it is a form of the verb which is useil indiscriuinately, to express past, present, or future time; the construction of the sentence aloue determin ing to which tense it belongs.
been. have been.
3. They may or can have been. 3. He may or can have been.
should have been.
miglit, could, would, or or should have been.
3 They might, could, would, or
Present Tense.–First Form.*
Plural. 1. If I am.
1. If we are. 2. If thou art, or if you are. 2. If ye or your are. 3. If he is.
3. If they are. Present Tense. Second Form. Singular.
Plural. 1. If I be.
1. If we be. 2. If thou be, or if you be. 2. If ye or you be. 3. If he be.
3. If they be. Present Tense.-Third Form. Singular.
Plural. 1. If I were.
1. If we were. 2. If thou wert, or if you were. 2. If ye or you were. 3. If he were.
3. If they were.t
Having been. * See remarks on the different forms of the subjunctive present. Part II. p. 58
+ In the subjunctive imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, first future, and second Future, the verb is conjugated just as it is in those tenses of the indicative mood, except that will and wilt are not used in the subjunctive second future, and that á conjunction is added in plying doubt on condition.
69. The verb to have is conjugated as follows:
Plural 1. I have.
1. We have.
Plural. 1. I had.
1. We had. 2. Thou hadst, or you had. 2. Ye or you had. 3. He had.
3. They had. The perfect and pluperfect are formed from the present and imperfect by annexing had; as, (perfect) I have had, &c. (pluperfect) I had had, &c. The first future is formed from the present by prefixing the auxiliary shall or will; as I shall or will have, &c. The second future is formed from the first by annexing had; as, I shall have had, You will have had, &c.
Plural. 2. Hạve thou, or do thou liave, 2. Have ye or you, or do ye or
or have you or do you have.
The potential mood is formed by prefixing the auxiliaries may, can, might, could, would, should, in the manner they were applied to the verb to be in all its variations: as, I may or can have; Thou mayst, &c.
The subjunctive is formed by the addition of a conjunction; as, If I have &c.
INFINITIVE MOOD. Present. To have.
Perfect. To have had.
Verbs are divided into regular, irregular and defective.
70. Verbs are called regular, when they form their imperfect tense and perfect participle by the addition of d or ed; and irregular, when they do not.
71. Defective verbs are those which are used only in some of their moods and tenses.
72. A passive verb is conjugated by adding the perfect participle to the auxiliary to be through all its changes of number, person, mood, and tense.*
OF ADVERBS. 73. An adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb, an adjective, a preposition, an article, and to other adverbs, to qualify them.
74. Some adverbs are compared; as, soon, sooner, soonest; often, oftener, oftenest; those ending in ly are compared by more and most; as, wisely, more wisely, most wisely.
OF PREPOSITIONS. 75. Prepositions serve to connect words with one another, and to shew the relation between them. They are for the most part put before nouns and pronouns, and always require an objective case after them, expressed or understood.
OF CONJUNCTIONS. 76. A conjunction is a part of speech that is chiefly used to connect sentences ; so as out of two or more sentences to make but one. It sometimes connects only words.
77. Conjunctions are properly divided into two sorts, the copulative and the disjunctive.
78. The conjunction copulative serves to con* See conjugation of transitive and passii e verbs throughout Part II.