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use is to show the genitive case of nouns; as, "A man's property: a woman's ornament.”
A Caret, marked thus a is placed where some word happens to be left out in writing, and which is inserted over the line.
A Hyphen marked thus - is employed in connecting compound words; as, “Lap-dog, tea-pot, to-morrow.
It is also used when a word is divided, and the former part is written or printed at the end of one line, and the latter part at the beginning of anoth
In this case, it is placed at the end of the first line, not at the beginning of the second.
The Acute Accent, marked thus";as "Fáncy." The Grave Accent, thus*; as, “Fåvor."
The Accentual marks are chiefly used in spelling-books and dictionaries, to mark the syllables which require a particular stress of the voice in pronunciation.
A Diæresis, thus marked", consists of two points placed over one of the two vowels that would otherwise make a dipthong, and parts them into two syllables; as, “Creator, äerial.”
A Section marked thus §, is the division of a discourse, or chapter, into less parts or portions.
A Paragraph denotes the beginning of a new subject, or a sentence not connected with the foregoing. This character is chiefly used in the Bible.
A Quotation" ". Two inverted commas are generally placed at the beginning of a phrase or a passage, which is quoted or transcribed from the speaker or author in his own words; and two commas in their direct position, are placed at the conclusion; as,
“The proper study of mankind is man."
An Index or Hand points out a remarkable
is used in poetry at the end of a
Braces are also used to connect a number of
An Asterisk or little star *, directs the reader to
An Ellipsis—is also used, when some letters in
An Obelisk, which is marked thus t,and Paral-
Different subjects, unless they are very short, or
When one subject is continued to a considerable
The facts, premises, and conclusions, of a subject, sometimes naturally point out the separations into paragraphs; and each of these, when of great length, will again require subdivisions at their most distinctive parts.
Directions respecting the use of Capital Letters
It was formerly the custom to begin every noun with a capital; but as this practice was troublesome and gave the writing or printing a crowded and confused appearance, it has been discontinued. It is, however, very proper to begin with a capital,
1. The first word of every book, chapter, letter, note, or any other piece of writing.
2. The first word after a period; and, if the two sentences are totally independent, after a note of interrogation or exclamation.
But if a number of interrogative or exclamatory sentences, are thrown into one general group; or if the construction of the latter sentences depends on the former, all of them, except the first, may begin with a small letter; as, “How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity and the scorners delight in their scorning and fools hate knowledge?” (Alas, how different! yet how like the same!”
3. The appellations of the Deity; as, “God, Jehovah, the Almighty, the Supreme Being, the Lord, Providence, the Messiah, the Holy Spirit.”
4. Proper names of persons, places, streets, mountains, rivers, ships; as, George, York, thé Strand, the Alps, the Tharnes, the Seahorse.
5. Adjectives derived from the
proper names of places; as, “Grecian, Roman, English, French, and Italian.
6. The first word of a quotation, introduced after a colon, or when it is in a direct form; as, “Always remember this ancient maxim: 'Know thyself," " "Our great lawgiver says, "Take up thy cross daily, and follow me.'” But when a quotation is brought in obliquely after a comma, a capital is unnecessary; as, “Solomon observes, that 'pride goes before destruction.'»
The first word of an example may also very properly begin with a capital; as, "Temptation proves our virtue."
7. Every substantive and principal word in the titles of books; as, "Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language;" "Thompson's Seasons;" “Rollin's Ancient History."
8. The first word of every line in poetry.
9. The pronoun I, and the interjection 0, are written in capitals; as, "I write:" "Hear O earth!”
Other words, besides the preceding, may begin with capitals, when they are remarkably emphatical, or the principal subject of the composition.