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Telecommunications: facilities inadequate; 1,300 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 6,000 est. radio sets; no TV sets; 1 AM station and no TV stations


Military manpower: males 15-49, 306,000; 166,000 fit for military service; about 14,000 reach military age (18) annually

Supply: dependent on India



Pacific 0cean

(see reference map to


1,098,160 km”; 2% cultivated and fallow, 11% pasture and meadow, 45% urban, desert, waste, or other, 40% forest, 2% inland water

Land boundaries: 6,083 km

PEOPLE Population: 5,286,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 2.6% (current) Nationality: noun—Bolivian(s); adjective—Bolivian Ethnic divisions: 50%-75% Indian, 20%-35% mestizo, 5%-15% white

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; active Protestant minority, especially Methodist

Language: Spanish, Aymara, Quechua Literacy: 35%-40%

Labor force: 2.8 million (1977); 70% agriculture, 3% mining, 10% services and utilities, 7% manufacturing, 10% other

Organized labor: 150,000-200,000, concentrated in mining, industry, construction, and transportation

Legal name: Republic of Bolivia

Type: republic; interim civilian government

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)

Political subdivisions: 9 departments with limited autonomy

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; constitution adopted 1967; constitution in force except where contrary to dispositions dictated by governments since 1969; legal education at University of San Andres and several others; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August

Branches: executive; congress of two chambers (Senate and Chamber of Deputies); judiciary

Government leaders: President Lidia GUEILER Tejada

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 if married, 21 if single

Elections: presidential and congressional elections held on 1 July 1979; since no presidential candidate won required simple majority, the contest was decided in the Congress where a compromise candidate, Senate President Walter Guevara Arce, was elected interim president; Guevara was overthrown on 1 November 1979 by a military coup led by Colonel Alberto Natusch Busch; popular repudiation of Natusch forced his resignation after 16 days in power and Congress chose Chamber of Deputies President Lidia Gueiler Tejada interim president to serve until new elections are held in July 1980 and a new president inaugurated in August 1980

Political parties and leaders: ban on political parties was lifted in December 1977; the two traditional political parties in Bolivia are the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR) and the Bolivian Socialist Phalange (FSB), both are seriously factionalized; Bolivian Socialist Falange (Mario Gutierrez); Nationalist Revolutionary Movement of the People (Jaime Arellano); Nationalist Revolutionary Movement of Left (Hernan Siles Zuazo); Authentic Revolutionary Party (Walter Guevara Arce); Christian Democratic Party (Benjamin Miguel); Nationalist Revolutionary Party of Left (Juan Lachin Oquendo); Paz Estenssorista MNR (Leonidas Sanchez); Nationalist Democratic Action Party (ADN) (Hugo Banzer) Voting strength (1979 elections): UDP-Democratic Popular Unity Front, a coalition of the MNR1, MIR and several smaller groups 35.6%; MNR 32.4%; ADN 13.5% Communists: three parties, PCB/Soviet led by Jorge Kolle Cueto, about 300 members, PCB/Chinese led by Oscar Zamora, 150 (including 100 in exile); POR (Trotskyist), about 50 members divided between three factions led by Hugo Gonzalez Moscoso, Guillermo Lora Escobar, and Amadeo Arze Member of: FAO, G-77, IAEA, IADB, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, LAFTA and Andean Sub-Regional Group (created in May 1969 within LAFTA), NAM, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP; $4.5 billion (1978, in 1978 dollars), $890 per capita; 70% private consumption, 12% public consumption, 18% gross domestic investment, -5.5% net foreign balance (1978); real growth rate (1972–78), average 5.6%; 1978 growth, 3.6% Agriculture: main crops—potatoes, corn, rice, sugarcane, yucca, bananas; imports significant quantities of wheat; caloric intake, 70% of requirements (1976) Major industries: mining, smelting, petroleum refining, food processing, textiles, and clothing Electric power: 367,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.1 billion kWh produced (1977), 230 kWh per capita Exports: $670 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); tin, petroleum, lead, zinc, silver, tungsten, antimony, bismuth, gold, coffee, sugar, cotton, natural gas Imports: $764 million (c.i.f., 1978); foodstuffs, chemicals, capital goods, pharmaceuticals, transportation Major trade partners: exports—Western Europe, 19% (of which UK is largest market); Latin America, 38%; U.S., 30%; Japan, 3.9%; imports—U.S., 24%; Western Europe, 15.4% (of which West Germany is largest supplier); Japan, 15.7%; Latin America, 33.6% (1975) Budget: $474 million revenues, $583 million expenditures (1978) Monetary conversion rate: 20 pesos=US$1 Fiscal year; calendar year



COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,572 km total, goverment owned, single track; 3,540 km meter gage (1,000 m), 32 km 0.760-meter gage; in addition, 96 km meter gage (1,000 m) privately owned Highways: 37,300 km total; 1,150 km paved, 6,550 km gravel, 5,950 km improved earth, 23,650 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: officially estimated to be 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways Pipelines: crude oil, 1,670 km; refined products, 1,495 km; natural gas, 580 km Ports: none (Bolivian cargo moved through Arica and Antofagasta, Chile, and Matarani, Peru) Civil air. 54 major transport aircraft Airfields: 588 total, 546 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 128 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: radio-relay system from La Paz to Santa Cruz, improved international services; 101,000 telephones (2.0 per 100 popl.); 122 AM, 18 FM, and 5 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT station

DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,213,000; 767,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (19) annually about 54,000 Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $118.5 million

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PEOPLE Population: 780,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 2.6% (current) Nationality: noun—Botswana (sing.), Batswana (pl.); adjective—Botswana Ethnic divisions: 94% Tswana, 5% Bushmen, 1% EuroDean Religion: 85% animist, 15% Christian Language: Africans speak Tswana vernacular Literacy: about 22% in English; about 32% in Tswana; less than 1% secondary school graduates Labor force: 78,000 formal sector employees; most others are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture; 40,000 or over one-half of formal sector employees spend at least 6 to 9 months per year as wage earners in South Africa (1978) Organized labor: eight trade unions organized with a total membership of approximately 9,000 (1972 est.)


Legal name: Republic of Botswana

Type: parliamentary republic; independent member of Commonwealth since 1966

Capital: Gaborone

Political subdivisions: 12 administrative districts

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; constitution came into effect 1966; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; legal education at University of Botswana and Swaziland (2% years) and University of Edinburgh (2 years); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: 30 September



Branches: executive—President appoints and presides over the cabinet which is responsible to Legislative Assembly; legislative—Legislative Assembly with 32 popularly elected members and 4 members elected by the 32 representatives, House of Chiefs with deliberative powers only; judicial—local courts administer customary law, High Court and subordinate courts have criminal jurisdiction over all residents, Court of Appeal has appellate jurisdiction Government leader: President, Sir Seretse M. Khama; Vice President, Dr. Quett K. J. Masire Suffrage; universal, age 21 and over Elections: general elections held 20 October 1979 Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Seretse Khama; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth Koma; Botswana People's Party (BPP), Philip Matante; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai Mpho Voting strength: (October 1979 election) BDP (29 seats); BPP (1 seat); BNF (2 seats); BIP (no seats) Communists: no known Communist organization; Koma of BNF has long history of Communist contacts Member of: AFDB, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, IDA, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UPU, WMO

ECONOMY GDP: $365.2 million (1976/77), growth in constant prices, less than 5% in 1977 Agriculture: principal crops are corn and sorghum, livestock raised and exported Major industries: livestock processing, mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, and coal Electric power: 75,000 kW capacity (1977); 85 million kWh produced (1977), 120 kWh per capita Exports: $206.0 million (1977 est.); cattle, animal products, copper, nickel Imports: $251.6 million (1977 est.); foodstuffs, vehicles, textiles, petroleum products Major trade partners: South Africa and U.K. Budget: (1978) revenue $143 million ($78 million from domestic taxes and $29 million from borrowing and foreign aid), current expenditures $90.5 million, investment expenditures $53.1 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 pula-about US$1.20 as of October 1977 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 726 km 1.067-meter gage Highways: 10,476 km total; 579 km paved; 1,453 km crushed stone or gravel; 5,407 km improved earth and 3,037 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: native craft only; of local importance Civil air; 7 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in Airfields: 78 total, 64 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

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GOVERNMENT Legal name: Federative Republic of Brazil Type: federal republic; military-backed presidential regime since April 1964 Capital: Brasília Political subdivisions: 22 states, 3 territories, federal district (Brasília) Legal system: based on Latin codes; dual’system of courts, state and federal; constitution adopted 1967 and extensively amended in 1969, has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September Branches: strong executive with very broad powers; bicameral legislature (powers of the two bodies have been sharply reduced); 11-man Supreme Court Government leader: President, João Figueiredo Suffrage: compulsory over age 18, except illiterates; approximately 30 million registered voters in October 1970 Elections: Figueiredo, who took office on 15 March 1979, was chosen by an electoral college, composed of the members of Congress and delegates selected from the state legislatures on 15 October 1978; next presidential election 1984 Voting strength: (November 1974 congressional elections) 33.6% ARENA, 31.9% MDB, 35.5% blank and void Political parties and leaders: National Renewal Alliance (ARENA), pro-government, José Sarney, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB), opposition, Ulisses Guimaraes, president Communists: 6,000, less than 1,000 militants Other political or pressure groups: the Catholic Church, over the years, has been a consistent critic of the regime; labor unions, at least as far as wage demands, have become highly active Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO. IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, LAFTA, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMY GNP; $187 billion (1978 est.), $1,620 per capita; 25% gross investment, 80% consumption, -5% net foreign balance (1976); real growth rate 6.32% (1978) Agriculture: main products—coffee, rice, beef, corn, milk, sugarcane, soybeans; nearly self-sufficient; caloric intake, 2,900 calories per day per capita (1962) Fishing: catch 842,523 metric tons (1977); exports, $74.7 million (f.o.b., 1977); imports, $54.6 million (f.o.b., 1977) Major industries: textiles and other consumer goods, chemicals, cement, lumber, steel, motor vehicles, other metalworking industries Crude steel: 12.5 million metric tons capacity (1978); 12.1 million metric tons produced (1978); 100 kg per capita

Electric power: 24,500,000 kW capacity (1977); 88.2 billion kWh produced (1978), 765 kWh per capita Exports: $12,650 million (f.o.b., 1978); coffee, manufactures, iron ore, cotton, soybeans, sugar, wood, cocoa, beef, shoes Imports: $13,639 million (f.o.b., chemicals, aluminum Major trade partners: exports—22.7% U.S., 8.4% West Germany, 6.2% Netherlands, 5.1% Japan, 4.0% Italy, 4.2% France, 2.3% Spain (1978); imports (non-oil)—31% U.S., 12% West Germany, 14% Japan, 6% Argentina (1978) Aid: economic—bilateral, including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from U.S., $1,670.6 million; from other Western countries, $3,069.4 million; from Communist countries, $303.5 million; military—from U.S. (FY70-76), $214.1 million Budget: (1978) revenues $19.3 billion, expenditures $19.2 billion Monetary conversion rate: 30 cruzeiros=US$1 (October 1979, changes frequently) Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 30,300 km total; 26,543 km meter gage (1,000 m), 3,361 km 1.60-meter gage, 194 km standard gage (1.435 m), 202 km 0.76-meter gage; 2,249 km electrified Highways: 1,510,900 km total; 75,900 km paved, 1,435,000 km gravel or earth Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable Ports: 8 major, 23 significant minor Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined products, 465 km, natural gas, 257 km Civil air: 146 major transport aircraft, including 4 leased 1n Airfields: 4,419 total, 3,831 usable; 185 with permanentsurface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 429 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair telecom system; good radio relay facilities; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT station with 2 antennas; 5 domestic satellite stations; 4.70 million telephones (3.9 per 100 popl.); 1,100 AM stations, 150 FM, and 175 TV stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables

DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 28,698,000; 18,679,000 fit for military service; 1,321,000 reach military age (18) annually Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $2,516.6 million; 8.8% of central government budget

1978); machinery, pharmaceuticals, petroleum, wheat, copper,


LAND 5,776 km”; 3% cultivated; 22% industry, waste, urban or other; 75% forested Land boundaries: 381 km

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