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The lovers of art are many, but the active intellect, the creative power, - the power to put these shapes and images in art, to embody the indefinite, and render perfect, – is his alone. Eie shares the gift with few. He knows not even whence or how this is. He knows only that it is; that God has given him the power which has been denied to others. 261

Longfellow : Hyperion. Bk. iii. Ch. 5. The artist is not the man who paints a landscape or a portrait better than any other man. It is not the man who writes a better poem, or builds a more symmetric edifice than another. It is not the man of any specific mode of industry or productive action. It is simply the man who in all these modes works from an ideal, works to produce or bring forth in tangible form some conception of use or beauty with which not his memory but his inmost soul is aglow. 262 Henry James: Lectures and Miscellanies. Lect. iii.

The Principle of Unicersality in Art. The artist, the man who is striving to actualize an idea, inevitably feels a sense of human dignity or worth to wbich the mere paid laborer is a stranger. 263 Henry James : Lectures and Miscellanies. Lect. iii.

The Principle of Unirersality in Art. He that seeks popularity in art closes the door on his own genius, as he must needs paint for other minds, and not for his own. 264 Mrs. Jameson : Memoirs and Essays. Washington

Allston. Only God Almighty makes painters. 265 Sir Godfrey Kneller : Reply to His Tailor, who re

quested His Son to be taken as a Pupil. The simplicity of the artist is always the stumbling-block of the artist with the world.

266 Ouida : Wisdom, Wit, and Pathos. . Friendship.

Every painter ought to paint what he himself loves, not what others have loved. If his mind be pure and sweetly toned, what he loves will be lovely ; if otherwise, no example can guide his selection, no precept govern his hand.

267 Ruskin : Modern Painters. Pt. iii. Sec. ii. Ch. 5. He draws nothing well who thirsts not to draw erery thing. When a good painter shrinks, it is because he is humbled, not fastidious; when he stops it is because he is surfeited, and not because he thinks nature has given him unkindly food, or that he fears famine.

268 Ruskin : Modern Painters. Pt. iii. Sec. i. Ch. 3.

He is the greatest artist who has embodied, in the sum of his works, the greatest number of the greatest ideas.

269 Ruskin : Modern Painters. Pt. i. Sec. i. Ch. 2. If it is the love of that which your work represents; if, being a landscape painter, it is love of hills and trees that moves you; if, being a figure painter, it is love of human beauty and human soul that moves you; if, being a flower or animal painter, it is love, and wonder, and delight in petal and in limb that move you, then the spirit is upon you, and the earth is yours and the fulness thereof. 270

Ruskin : The Two Paths. sect. 1. Nothing must come between nature and the artist's sight; nothing between God and the artist's soul.

271 Ruskin : The Stones of Venice. The Fall. Ch. 2.

There is no great painter, no great workian in any art, but he sees more with the glance of a moment than he could learn by the labor of a thousand hours.

272 Ruskin : The Stones of Venice. The Fall. Ch. 2.

The whole function of the artist in the world is to be a seeing and a feeling creature; to be an instrument of such tenderness and sensitiveness that no shadow, no hue, no line, no instantaneous and evanescent expression of the visible things around him, nor any of the emotions which they are capable of conveying to the spirit which has been given him, shall either be left unrecorded, or fade from the book of record.

273 Ruskin: The Stones of Venice. The Fall. Ch. 2. Timon. Wrought he not well that painted it ? Apem. He wrought better

that made the painter. 274 Shakespeare: Timon of Athens. Act i. Sc. 1.

Art is a language, and a seemingly careless workman may be a truer artist than his painstaking fellow. When one has little to say, his technics are a kind of pedantry, while a faulty poem or picture may be great because a great thought of character is in it. The best workman is he who adapts means to the noblest end, and we tire of those who, with no message to deliver, elaborate their style.

275 Stedman : Poets of America. Ch. 12. The Outlook.

There is no such a thing as a dumb poet or a handless painter. The essence of an artist is that he should be articulate. 276 Swinburne : Essays and Studies. Matthew Arnold's

New Poems. This gift of love and faith, now rare enough, has been and should be ever the common apanage of artists. 277 Swinburne : Essays and Studies. Notes on Some

Pictures of 1868. A great artist can paint a great picture on a small canvas. 278

Charles Dudley Warner : Washington Irving.

Ch. 6. American Men of Letters. A painter is a companion for kings and emperors. 270 Benjamin West: Exclamation in a Conversation. ASPIRATION.

Enflamed with the study of learning and the admiration of virtue; stirred up with high hopes of living to be brave men and worthy patriots, dear to God and famous to all ages. 280

Milton : Tractate of Education. ASSURANCE.

God Almighty cannot prevent me from winning a victory to-day. 281 Gen. Joseph IIooker : Letter to President Abraham

Lincoln, the day previous to the fight at Chan

cellorsville. ATHEISTS.

Though a man declares himself an atheist, it in no way alters his obligations. 282

Henry Ward Beecher : Life Thoughts. AUDACITY.

Stubborn audacity is the last refuge of guilt.

283 Johnson: Works. IX. 115. (Oxford edition, 1825.) AUGURY.

We defy augury: there is a special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it be now, 'tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come; the readiness is all. 284

Shakespeare: Hamlet. Act v. Sc. 2. AUTHORITY - - see Judges, Office, Old Age, Submission.

Power and authority are sometimes bought by kindness; but they can never be begged as alms by an impoverished and defeated violence. 285 Burke : Speech. Conciliation with America.

March 22, 1775. He who is firmly seated in authority soon learns to think security, and not progress, the highest lesson of statecraft. From the summit of power men no longer turn their eyes upward, but begin to look about them. Aspiration sees only one side of every question; possession, many. 286

Lowell : Among My Books. New England

Two C'enturies Ago. Kindness out of season destroys authority, 287 Saadi : The ulistan Ch. 8. Rules for Conduct in

Life. No. 18.
AUTHORS see Authorship, Biography, Criticism,

Fame, Fiction, Historians, Individuality, Literature,
Patriots, Plagiarism, Quotation, Translators, Vanity.

Nobody writes a book without meaning something, though he may not have the faculty of writing consequentially, and expressing his meaning. 288

Addison : Whig Examiner. No. 4. A book made, renders succession to the author; for as long as the book exists, the author remaining uðuratos, immortal, cannot perish.

289 Richard Aungercyle ( Richard de Bury): Philobiblon.

The pen is the tongue of the hand: a silent utterer of words for the eye. 290 Henry Ward Beecher : Proverbs from Plymouth

Pulpit. He who writes prose builds his temple to fame in rubble. He who writes verses builds it in granite. 291

Bulwer-Lytton : Caxtoniana. Essay xxvii. Writers, especially when they act in a body, and in one direction, have great influence on the public inind. 292

Burke : Reflections on the Revolution in France. Authors are martyrs, witnesses for the truth, or else nothiing. Money cannot make or unmake them. They are made or unmade, commanded and held back, by God Almighty alone, whose inspiration it is has given them understanding. 293

Carlyle : Journal, July 22, 1832. Incessant scribbling is death to thought. 294 Carlyle : Letter to John Carlyle, March 27, 1831.

Oh, thou who art able to write a book, which once in the two centuries or oftener there is a man gifted to do, envy not him whom they name city-builder, and inexpressibly pity him whom they name conqueror or city-burner! Thou, too, art a conqneror or victor, but of the true sort; namely, over the Devil. Thou, too, hast built what will outlast all marble and metal, and be a wonder-bringing city of the mind, a temple and seminary and prophetic mount, whereto all kindreds of the earth will pilgrim. 295

Carlyle : Sartor Resartus. Bk. ii. Ch. 8. The writer of a book, is not he a preacher preaching not to this parish or that, on this day or that, but to all men in all times and places ? 296 Carlyle : Heroes and Hero Worship. The Hero as

Man of Letters. The pen is the tongue of the mind. 297 Cervantes : Don Quixote. Pt. ii. Ch. 16. (Jarvis,

Translator.) Authors are lamps, exhausting themselves to give light to others; or rather may they be compared to industrious bees, not because they are armed with a sting, but because they gather honey froin every flower, only that their hive may be plundered when their toil is completed. Paul Chatfield, M.D. (Horace Smith). The Tin

Trumpet. Authors.

298

Next to doing things that deserve to be written, there is nothing that gets a man more credit, or gives him more pleasure, than to write things that deserve to be read. 299

Lord Chesterfield : Letters to His Son. 1739. Authors, like women, commonly dress when they make a visit. Respect to themselves makes them polish their thoughts, and exert the force of their understanding more than they would, or can do, in ordinary conversation. 300 Jeremy Collier : Essays upon Severul Moral Sub

jects. Of the Entertainment of Books. It is not easy for a man to speak of his own books. 301 Dickens : Speeches, Literary and Social. III.

Feb. 1, 1842. An author is a solitary being, who, for the same reason he pleases one, must consequently displease another. 302 Isaac Disraeli : Literary Character of Men of Genius.

Literary Miscellanies. On Reading. Authors stand between the governors and the governed, and forin the single organ of both. Those who govern a nation cannot at the same time enlighten the people, for the executive power is not empirical; and the governed cannot think, for they have no continuity of leisure. 303 Isaac Disraeli: Literary Character of Men of

Genius. Ch. 25. I think the author who speaks about his own books is almost as bad as a mother who talks about her own children. 304 Disraeli (Earl of Beaconsfield): Speech at Banquet

to Lord Rector, Glasgow, Nov. 19, 1870. Talent alone cannot make a writer. There must be a man behind the book, a personality which, by birth and quality, is pledged to the doctrines there set forth, and which exists to see and state things so, and not otherwise, holding things because they are things. 305 Emerson : Representative Men. Goethe ; or, The

Writer. The writer, like a priest, must be exempted from secular labor. His work needs a frolic health: he must be at the top of his condition. 306 Emerson : Poetry and Imagination. Creation.

An affected modesty is very often the greatest vanity, and authors are sometimes prouder of their blushes than of the praises which occasioned them. 307 Farquhar: The Constant Couple ; or, A Trip to the

Jubilee. Preface. Every author, in some degree, portrays himself in his works, even be it against his will. 308

Goethe: The Poet's Year.

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