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them to be somewhat borrified at his way; and, like their brethren of Otaheite, naiveté, he added, in order to re-assure love to vary the pleasure of eating as much them, that be never ate Europeans ; but as possible. They cut one of the bread. merely the mischievons inhabitants of the fruit in two, take out the central portion, banks of the Thames River and Mercury and having filled up the hollow space with Bay. " The people of Europe," said be, the milk of the cocoa, of four different

are our fathers, since they furnish us ages, cook the wbole in a banana-leaf. with powder to destroy our enemies.” Their beverage consists of rain water, the Those who fall in battle are invariably island possessing no springs, and the milk cooked, and eaten by the victors; but it of the cocoa nut. does not appear to be certain that they The Mongol-Pelagian tribes, who, acdevour the slaves whom they sacrifice on cording to M. Lesson, inhabit the immense

various occasions, though it is extremely Archipelago, termed, from Charles 11. of - probable that they are kept and fattened Spain, the Caroline Íslands, are found in expressly for the purpose, as hogs and almost every stage of civilization. But it oxen are with us. "

the natives of the western portion of the • The fern-root, of which they make their immense chain of the Carolines have made bread, is collected by slaves, and exposed some progress in the knowledge of the to the sun to dry. It is then pounded in useful arts; their brethren of the eastern a wooden mortar, and reduced to a brown extremity are still plunged in the lowest paste, viscons like glue; and containing depths of barbarism. The inhabitants, considerable quantities of a woody kind of for example, of Gilbert's Archipelago, of rind, which covers the root. This paste is Sydenhain and Henderville Islands; and then kneaded in small wooden troughs, and in faci, of all the small archipelagoes, and baked for use. The bread of the fern-root islands in the neighbourhood, possess : is far from being very nutritive, resem- scarcely any thing human but the formı;

bling, in some measure, that which is made neither arts, nor nianner*, nor feelings. in Finland, from the bark of the fir-trees; Their food consists almost entirely of fishi,

though certainly snperior to the loaves of and even of this, the supply is so much · clay which certain subjects of the Russian below the demand, that according to Mr.

empire are reduced to devour. Hanger, Malthus's interpretation of the practice. however, is not nice; and M. Lesson, they compress the abdomen with a sort of remarks, that he has beheld the New cord, wouud many times round the body, Zealander eating, with the sensuality of a to impede the passage of their food, and gourmand, fish which was not only stink- thuis lessen the cravings of hunger. Was ing, but half rotten. To preserve a cer- it from these refined people, that our tain kind of small fish, for which they fashionable exqnisites took the hint of appear to have a strong predilection, they compressing their abdomen with stays, for press them together, as the Tahitians do the purpose of lessening their butchers' their bananas, until nearly all their mois. and bakers' bills, in order to allow that of *ture is drained out, and in this condition their tailor to be increased. . - preserve them for future use.

Perhaps the principal reason why these Tlie food of a people has certainly various tribes of men make so very slow a some connection with their national cha. progress in civilization, may be discovered racter, either as cause or effect; mild and in the circumstance, that they are clothed, peaceful 'tribes preferring simple apd as it were, by the sunshine of their

bloodless repasts, while the warlike and climate; and fed without labour, by the : the ferocious love, like the lion and the spontaneous bounty and fertility of their

tiger, to satisfy their fiercer appetites with soil. In our northern regions we are in the flesh of animals. The inliabitants of a state of continual warfare with the the island of Rotouma, offer, in this res- climate, which changing perpetually like pect, a striking contrast to those of New Proteus, attacks us now under one form, Zealand. The former rise early in the now under another. This compels us to morning and, before tasting any food, have ręcourse to various inventions to issue forth from their hnts to enjoy for á guard against the open or insidious apfew moments the delicious frešbness of proaches of our enemy; and our dress, - the dawn. About eight o'clock they'onir dwellings, oor umbrellas, our covered breakfast upon fruits ; and having per- carriages, &c., are merely so many shields formed some trifling labour, meet together and bucklers, with which we protect ouragain about eleven, to collect the cocoa. selves against the inclemency of the wea

nuts, and other articles which constitute 'ther. People who suffer no inconvenience · their second and privcipal meal. These from going naked, are slow in inventing articles consist chiefly of vegetables, or of clothes; and when nature herself takes shell and other fish. These simple people, the bnsiness of agriculture ont of the hands · however, are great gourmands in their of man, and with her sunshine and her benignant slowers, ploughs and sows in - for their passion for ornament. The Tahihis stead; man naturally enough stauds tians, and the inliabitants of the Sandwich by idle, slrugs up his shoulders, and allows Islands, delight, like the Greeks of old, to bis provisions to drop, as it were, into his crown themselves with flowers, and invamouth.

riably select for this purpose those which The greater number of the South Sea are distinguished for the most brilliant Islanders, whether, we denominate them colours, or the sweetest odonrs, such as DIongol-Pelagians, Oceanians, or Papous, the hibiscus rosa sinensis, and the gardenia are very nearly in the position, above torida. There they twine about their described. " They toil not, neither dọ heads, like Anacreon, in wreaths, or pass they spin,” for the most part; and yet, through little holes made in the lobes, of with very few exceptions, they live like their ears, in order the more easily to princes ; that is, they eat and drivk and inhale their delicious fragrance. The indo nothing. With dress, however, none habitants of the Marquesas and Wasbingof them are greatly incumbered, being in ton islands, as well as those of Rotooma general of Thomson's opinion, that people and the Fidjis, attach the higbest value to when unadurned are adorned the most; the teeth of the Spermaceti wbale, which, that is, preferring Nature's manufacture rendered sacred by we know not, what before their own. The beaux and belles superstitious ideas, are in their eyes, says of Otaheite, have latierly formed an ex- the naturalist, exactly what dianjonds are ception to this rule ; for ever since they with us. The New Zealanders, and the have become Christians, their passion for natives of Easter Island. adoro tl finery has been extreme, it being, appa- tresses with tufts of feathers instead of rently a received opinion among them, as flowers and suspend small round bits of it is among many other nations, that a painted wood in the lobes of their ears. man puts on civilization and retinement Several of these isla

retnement Several of these islanders manufacture a with lus coat and breeches; the meapness kind of mask or visor with the leaves of or magnificence of the latter, being the the cocoa-tree, to detend their faces from standard by which we are to estimate the the scorching rays of the sun; and, this former.

species of armour has a somewhat pleasing The inbabitants of the Marquesas and and graceful appearance when worn by Sandwich islauds wear extremely light and young persons. imperfect garments. Such tribes of the The, habit of' anointing the body with oil Oceanian race as are induced by the rigour is, as might be expecied, universal among or vicissitudes of their climate, to have the Oceanians ; those living within the recourse to more ample garments, adjust tropics making use of cocoa-nut oil, wbile their light drapery about their forms in the rest are compelled to put up with tish the most graceful manner. The women or seal-oil. This fashion, which the heat frequently throw a large piece of stuff of the climate excuses, if it does not renover their shoulders, which, descending in der it necessary, communicates an, unsalindularing folds, to the feet, resembles in ,voury odour to the bodies of these savage a very striking manner the costume of the 'belles. . . ancients. The chiefs alone enjoy the pre- , At Rotooma, and in the Sandwich rogative of. wearing the Tipoola, a gar- islands, the women have the extraordinary ment similar to the Poncho of the South practice of powdering their hair with coral Americans, described by. General Miller lime; while in several of these same islands and others. The New Zealanders, placed, they streak their bodies with the yellow as M. Lesson observes, beyond the trec powder of the curcuma, and daub their pics, liave been compelled, by the rigour faces with ocre. , Another practice, of of their climate, to adopt a more warm which no traces are discoverable among and ample costume, than their brethren of any other wild people, except a few scatbe equatorial regions; and finding, in the tered tribes of Nortberp Asia and Amesilky fibres of the Phorminn, a substance , rica, is to wear large patches of black or admirably adapted for their purpose, they sky-blne on the face, like the fashionables bave applied themselves to the fabrication of the last century. of fine, but thick mais, in wkich, notwith. In several of the Caroline Islands, the standing the siinplicity of their instru- , inhabitants, wear a sort of Chinese hat, ments, they exhibit considerable skill, fabricated from a species of grass; and Their maniles are still thicker and warmer their ornaments, which are numerous, are than the mats, and generally descend half formed of sbells. The tribes wlio wander way below the knee. They are often on the north coast of New Guinea, ha ving composed of dog skins, sewed together, continual communications with the Malays, witb the fur outwards.

and particularly with the Guebeans, reTuongh sparing, even to indelicacy, in ceive from them in exchange for slaves, or their dress, the Oceanians are remarkable other commodities, birds of paradise, tor

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toise-shell, or red or blue cotton, which are the women whó, for the most part, have set apart for the use of the women. abjured as far as possible all native ma. Finding it somewhat difficrilt to obtain" mufacture, begin to dress in ihe English ornaments and finery external to the body; fasliion, wearing gowns, lodian silk handthey betake themselves to operating upon kerchiets and ribbons; which, our va their own skin, and endeavõiir to improve türalist "assures is, disfigure them iconteir appearance, and add force to their foundedly. We suppose he would have natural charms, by making incisions on found them more agreeable in puris natheir shoulders and breasts, the cicatrices turulibus. Among the few articles of home of which are artificially raised into knots manufacture which the dames still toleand bunips, like the organs of thinking on rate, from necessity, are the beautiful a phrenological skall. The Paponias, whose straw hats, which are as fine, silky, and frizzled hair is so`abundant that they ap- brilliant, as the best Leghoros, Tirese pear at a distance as if they had put their they fabricate with their own fair lands, hreads into bee-hives, or Scotch porridgewi and we trust the missionaries will teachi pots, adorn their woolly locks with a mix-' them, for the interests of morality, that it ture of grease and ocre, with which thcy is one of the duties of Christianity to likewise make streaks upon their face and make straw hats, or something of that breast, and this greatly improve opon kind, for there is nothing so favourable to their natural ugliness. Man, almost every chastity as constant employment. Anwhere, employs the leisure which Provis other article of Tahiti fabric is the waterdence bestows upon him in foolery of proof mantle which they throw over their some kind or another. Here, the time shouldersm rainy weatlier, and will proand ingenuity which might produce a bably continue to prefer to English cota more comfortable hut, better clothing, or tons or silks, as tropical showers are great more savoury 'or nourishing food, are logicians in matters of this kind. tlirown a way upon toys formed with fea. So soon as man begios to feel the desire thers, inother-of-peari, or shells, which are to wear a better coat, or inliabit a betler stuck upon the head, the girdle, or on the house than his neighbour, he may be árus they use in battle. Another orna- regarded as having fairly entered apon the ment, universally in nise among this race, bigh road to civilization. Nations that

is a species of bracelet of dazzling white build their houses and fashion their gar 'ness, fabricated with the teeth of the bar ments after a received model are station. birossa, or with ivory, and exactly re- ary, and can, in fact, have few motives for sembling the bracelets found upon the being otherwise. This is pretty nearly arms of Egyptian mummies. Another ex- the case with all the nations inhabiting the traordinary resenıblance between their islands of the South Sea. Each tribe bas customs and those of the ancient Egyp: one original type," bequeathed to them tians is discoverable in the wooden pillows, by the wisdony of their ancestors, accordi adorned with the liead of a sphynx, upon ing to which every mother's son among which 'they'repose the head when sleeping, them, whethier liebe poor or wealthy and whichi, when compared with those wise or foolish; erects his hut. In deter: found in the catacombs under the heads mining the order of these huts, the climate of maminies, and bronglit to France 'bý may be said to have been the Vitruvius. various travellers, 'bave been found to be in the Society, Tonga, and Marquesas "exactly similar,'

ore ; Islands, where space and cool air are a - The most remarkable feature, perhaps, desideratum in a house, the, habitations jo the costame of the Otaheitans jsthe arè vast, spacions, and airy · while in mixture of Enropean and native article's New Zealand, wtrere the winters are cold which it sometinies exhibits; for, as the and long, aud where the winds and storms number of slips trading to those constries, frequently rage with irresistible violevice, compared with the amount of the popula- the huts are exceedingly small and low, ton, is small, the majority of the na tives being entered by a hole, like the’den of 'cam · seldoin procure a complete set of some wild animal. . , European clothes. Accordingly, you will In the construction of their dwellings, sometimes encounter a gay savage with an as in every other art, the l'abitians také English shirt, hat, and silk liandkerchief, the lead of their whole race. Uutortni. as a cravat, while the native naro, with wately, althongh between the hut of a its scanty proportions, supplies the place chief and that of a peasant there is a conof breecles, and the tipoota, 'or poncho "siderable difference, there is here, as elseof artificial papyrus, waves its ampie folds where, a model, froin which it is' unover his shoulders. The tipoota is gene. fasbionable to depart. Even in working rally white, but the edges and corners are after the same model, however, it is ex. variegated with a border of leaves of tremely possible for two men to induce a brilliant red.

difference; as Quakers contrive; by tlie materials and make of their single-breasted over wbich you pass, when entering the coats, to mark the rank of the wearer in house, by means of short poles driven ioto the scale of wealth. The houses of the the earth. This enclosure is meant to cominon people in Otaheite are formed keep out the pigs and other animals, and with barnbons, one extremity of which is prevent their intradiog, along with less driven deep into the earth, or of branches ceremonions visitors, upon the privacy of of trees of equal size. These are placed newly-married people. Around the but, neasly close to each other, leaving only a on the outside of the waltled enclosure, small space for the passage of light and trees of varions kinds are planted, as is air ; and a few small poles placed transthe case in Malabar, which furnish the inversely keep the whole together. The mates at once with shelter aod food. The roof is formed with small rafiers which dwellings of the chiefs, which of course meet above, and support the species of are larger and inore spacions, though conleaf which serve them instead of thatch. structed exteriorly after the same fashion, These leaves are first tied to small rods, are divided into a greater number of which are then laid upon the rafters, the apartments. These divisions do not, as lanceolated end of the leaves remaining with us, consist of firm partitions, but of loose. M. Lesson says the process is be- light irellice-work, which rises about halfgun at the top; but as, in this case, the way the height of the house, the whole of point of the leaf would fall under the stem the upper part being left open for the of the next, and thus offer an obstruction better circulation of the air. to the free descent of the water, this state. Besides the houses of the chiefs and the ment is probably a mistake; the more people, there is a third sort of structore, especially as he observes, that roofs which being appropriated to the casual fornied after the Tahitian method are use of any stranger who cliooses to spread greatly superior to those which, iu civilized his mat and sleep there, may be termed contries, are made with slate or tiles. caravanserais. These are of vast dimenWhen completed, the whole has very much sions, but consist inerely of a roof snpthe appearance of the thatched roof of onr ported by a number of bread-fruit trees peasantry. .

arranged as pillars. The villages of the These dwellings are, as we have said, of Tahitians, which are chiefly situated on large dimensions, and owing to the man- the sea-shore, consist of a considerable ner in which they are built, ttre air circu. number of these huts thinly scattered over lates through them freely. Indeed, in the a large extent of ground, for as yet they houses of the poor, the rain often intrudes have exbibited no disposition to draw with the wind, and renders the interior closely togetber, as men do in those counextremely uncomfortable. Those who tries where the dread of hostile tribes acts have more wealth, or greater industry, as an instrument of civilization. hang mats round the walls to keep on the The furnitnre of the Oceanians is parwind and rain. The elevation of these ticularly scanty, A mat or mattrass for a houses is not great ; and a narrow aper- bed ; a ljet-bag for boliling various small ture, which looks as if it tad been left in articles of utility; hollow bamboos for the wall by chance, serves for a door. As containing water or oil; a hollow gourd the Tahitians are a sociable people, they for a smelling-box; cocoa-nuts wrought have already discovered the secret that, into vases, cups, and bottles; with a when a man's house is too large for his pestle and mortar for bruising the bread. own family. he may turn the circumstance fruit. in order to convert it into paste to account by taking in lodgers. In this such are the whole of their utensils. way, probably; it happens that several Where commerce with Europeans has not families are found inhabring the same furnished then with tools, their houses dwelling; and, as was anciently the case and their pirogues, are still constructed in France, and perhaps in other coun- with axes of stone. tries, the whole tamily, father, mother, Their industry is neither very inventive and childrell, with grand-children, and yor very persevering. Their mats, the great-grand-children, when there are any, most important and curious article of their sleep together in the saine apartmeut. manufacture, are fabricated by women, This common bed-room, wiich was ex. Their canoes, formerly constructed with pressively termed chambre de manège in considerable skill and elegance, when the France, is not very carefully closed against only tools in use were stone hatchets, are the intrusion of strangers ; for M Lesson now turned out of hand, as a ship-carremarks, that he has often seen young penter would say, in a much more slovenly newly married pairs stretched upon the manner since their tools have been of same mat with their fathers and mothers. iron, M. Lesson attributes this circum

These houses are surrounded by a stance to their neglect of paval architecwattled enclosure, about three feet high, ture, consequent upon the great fertility

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of their soil. But since their soil is not · The details given by travellers and na. now more fertile than formerly, it may, vigators respecting the manners, customs, perhaps, be more just to attribute it to and arts of barbarous nations, being the their being as yet unaccustomed to our result of actiial observations, may iu gebetter tools, which are only better in neral be relied upon; but when they would hands skilled in the use of them. The penetrate into the souls of these savages, emblematical sculpture, which formerly and discover the exact nature of their adorned these pirogues, having been religious belief, they are so extremely closely connected with their Pagan saper. liable to misconception and error, that we stitions, have necessarily disappeared must receive their testimony on such subsince their conversion to Christianity. jects with the utmost cantion. Few are

Among those islanders who have rea competent, even when they possess the ceived from Europeans a knowledge of language of a foreign people, to penetrate the use of fire-arms, the ancient instru. rapidly into the character of; their creed; ments of war have necessarily been de but when we find men preteuding to paint glected. Their long-pointed lances, their the obscure notions of savages, with whom deadly-slings, their light javelins of bam- they could only communicate by panto. boo, have all been laid aside, in favour of mime, concerning the first cause of things, the more destructive-musket, which these the future fate of the thinking principle demi-savages regard as the most sublime which for a time inhabits the human body, invention of civilized man. M. Lesson &c. we with difficulty restrain our risi. complains, that no civilized nation has bility. hitherto condescended to collect and pre. What appears to be tolerably certain is, serve those curious menorials of the that the Oceanians, like all other nations ancient condition of these islanders, which, and tribes of men on the face of the earth, he fears, will soon be sought in vain, ex: believe in the existence of a Supreme cept in the descriptions of authors : but Being, who created the world, and still on this point he may console himself. A preserves it in existence for tile benefit of collection, which may, perhaps, be re- his creatures. This Spirit, which they garded as complete, exists in England, endow with beneficent attributes, governs partly at the British Museum, party at the world only during the day, lowever, the rooms of the Missionary Society, where his empire declining with the decline of the curious student of the history of man light; and another spirit, the genius of may contemplate them at his leisure. darkness, of accidents, and of death,

One of their most important warlike comes upon the scene with vight. This instruments is that with which they combat seems to be that rade mixture of Ma. ennui, an enemy which appears to be no nichæan and Sabean ideas which obtains respecter of persons, but to attack all among all uncivilized nations in the first men alike, wliether civilized or savage- stages of their progress, and arises sponthis is the finte. In the use of this in- taneously out of their contemplation of strument the Oceanians show a laudable the natural phenomena daily presented to disposition to turn every part of their their eyes. The genius of good, Orimazes, body to account; for, instead of applying Osiris, or wliatever it may be called, is no the mouth to the business, which they other than the sun deified; and Ahriman, perhaps regard as being rather hardly Typhon, Siva, &c. the genini» of darkness, tasked in having to receive and transmit which, by hiding the creation from the to the lower regions all the food they think eyes of man, appears to blot it out of it convenient to swallow, they call upon existence. The worship which barbarians the nose to perform this office, à lazy offer to other objects is nothng more than meniber, wbich neither eats nor drinks, a modification of what is vulgarly called aud, unless it be employed in Aute-play- cant or blurney, intended to nollify and ing, or in kissing, as among the New Zea- and propitiate the fierce and miscbievous, landers and others, may be accused of and keep the mild and beniticent in good being of little ise to a man, notwithstand. humour. ing all the hue and cry which Tristram All nations appear to entertain more Shandy's father raised over the downfall or less vague notions of a future state. of his son's. Our prejudices may proba. The iuhabitants of the Society Islands bly lead us to think slightingly of a nose- believe in a species of Paradise, whither Aute, but M. Lesson assuires us that, wbat. the souls of good men are conveyed upon ever we may imagine to the contrary, the the wings of their beneficent divinity. nose is no bad musician; and that al. The people of the Friendly Islands have though amongst us it is chiefly employed imagined a delicious abode, where the in that most unmusical art, vulgarly called souls of the aristocracy enjoy eternal hapsnuffling, its performances are by no means piness, while those of the volgar, like the inelegant.

golden-mean people of Tom Paine, “ are Vol. VI.

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