« PreviousContinue »
better discourse: amongst those also that SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN AND semained was a young man who appeared THE REBUILDING ST. PAUL'S like an apprentice, or the foreman of a
CATHEDRAL.T. shop, and who pleased Barrow greatly hy accosting him with these words of enconragement as he came down from the pol- Sir Christopher Wren in the year 1663, pil: Sir, be not dismayeil, for I assure you received a commission under the great 'Lucils i god sermon. When several parish - seal to inspect and restore the cathedral ioners came to expostulate with Dr. Wil- of St. Paui's. The difficulties he had to kins on his suffering such an ignorant struggle with in this gigantic undertakiug, scunalous person to have the nse of his froni ihe narrow-minded opposition of his pulpit, he referred them to Mr. Baxter, brother commissioners, who candidly praised the sermon as it patching to building, are pretty generally
preferred deserved, declaring that he could willingly known. Indeed bad not these bickerings hure been an auditor all the duy long. Cou- been terminated by the destructive fire of founded and put to shame by this judgment 1066, which almost completely demolished from a person whom they acknowledged the antique buildings, with the memorable as their superior, they soon confessed that
recent improvements of Inigo Jones, it is they had not heard a word of the discourse extremely improbable that Sir Christopher which they thus abused, and began cara nestly to entreat their rector that lie would carrying his magnificent plans into efect.
would ever have had any opportunity of procure Dr. Barrow's services again, promising to make him amends by bringing the 20th of July, 1668, by the king in
An order, however, was at last issaed, on their whole families to his sernion. All
council, to take down the rninons walis persons, however, had not the patience of and to clear the ground to the fonodation. the worthy non-conformist, as was evident
The removal of the ruins of St. Pani's when Barrow was preaching on a certain forms an instructive chapter in archiholyrlay at Westminster Abbey: for the
The walls, eiglity feet perpendiservants of that church, who were then cular, and five feet thick, and the tower at accustomed to shew the waxen effigies of least two hundred feet high, though cracked the kings and queens, between services on
and swayed, and tottering, stuck obsti. holydays, to crowds of the lower orders, nately together, and their removal, stone perceiving the doctor in the pulpit long after the hour was past, and fearing to lose by stone, was found tedions and dangerous. that time in heuring which they thonght eoed the stones above, then canted them
At first, men with picks and levers looscould be so much more profitably employ- over, and labourers moved them away ed in receiving, became so impatient, that below, and piled them into heaps. The they caused the organ to be struck op
want oť room (for between the walls of against him, and would not cease till
they the church and those of the houses there had blown' him down. Can Dr. Pope, lay a street only some thirty feet wide) however, be crediteil, when he assures us
made this way slow and unsafe ; several that his spittle-sermon before the lord
men lost their lives, and the piles of stone mayor and aldermen ocrupied three hours
grew steep and large. “ Thus, however, and a half? One is almost tempted to
Wren proceeded,” says his son, gaining suppose that the customary invitation to dinner had been forgotten, and that the every day more room, till he came to the
middle tower, that bore the steeple, the preacher took this ingenious method of remains of the tower being near two hunrevenging himself for the neglect. Being dsed feet high, the labourers were afraid asked op that occasion, when he came
to work above, thereupon he concluded to down from the pulpit, whether he was not
facilitate this work hy the line of guntired, bis reply is said to have been-“Yes, powder. He dog a hole down by the side indeed, I began to be weary with standing of the north-west pillar of the tower, the so long."—Vulpy's Divines of the Church of four pillars of which were each about England.
fourteen feet diameter ; when he bad dag to the foundation, he then with crows
and tools made on purpose, wronght a THE SOVEREIGN REMEDY.
hole two feet square hard into the centre ALAS! how in the world we're made for, of the pillar ; there he placed a little deal Sous conquered, really are sins paid for !
box containing eighteen pounds of powder We break a head, inspired by wine, What plasters up the wound—a five;
and no more; a cane was fixed to the
box with a quick match, as gunners call it, What meuds the matter?-still the same? In notes her sentence law dispenses, And justice only means expenses.
+ From the Family Library, Vol. XIX.-Lives of the most Exninent British Painters, Sculptors, and
We steal a wife--we foul a naine
within the cane, which reached from the Wren had had the sagacity to make box to the ground above, and along various designs, for there were many the ground was laid the train of powder judges-he desired to show that he was with a match; after the mine was carefully alike prepared for all tastes, from the closed up again withstone and mortar to the simple to the magnificent. The form of top of the ground, he then observed the the classic temple, he imagined, suited the effect of the blow. This little quantity of reformed worship best, being compact and powder not only lifted up the whole angle simple, without long aisles, our religion of the tower, with two great arches which not using processions like that of Rome; résted npon it, but also two adjoining he accordingly planned a church of modearches of the aisles and all above them ; rate size, of good proportion : a conand this it seemed to do somewhat lei. venient choir with a vestibule and porticos, surely, cracking the walls to the top, lift- and a dome conspicuous above the houses, ing visibly the whole weiglit above nine “ This design," says his son, was apinches, which snddenly jumping down plauded by persons of good understanding made a great heap of ruins in the place as containing all that was necessary for without scattering; it was half a minute the church of the metropolis, of a beautiful before the heap opened in two or three figure, and of au expense that reasonably places and emitted some smoke. By this might have been compassed: but being description may be observed the incredible contrived in the Roman style, was not so force of powder; eighteen pounds of well understood and relished by others; which lifted up three thousand tons, and some thought it not stately enough, and saved the work of a thousand labourers. contended that, for the honour of the The fall of so great a weight from an nation and city of London, it ought not to height of two hundred feet, gave a con- be exceeded in . maguiticence by any cnssion to the ground that the inliabitants church in Europe.” Much as this plan around took for an earthquake. During was approved, it was nevertheless one of Wren's absence, his superintendent made those which he sketched “merely,” as he a larger hole, pt in a greater charge said, “ for discourse sake;" he had beof gunpowder, and, neglecting to fortity stowed his study upou two designs, both of the mouth of the mine, applied the match. which he liked ; though one of them he The explosion accomplished the object; preferred, and justly, above the other. but one stone was displaced with such The ground plaus of both were in the violence, that it tlew to the opposite side form of the cross; that which pleased of the church-yard, smashed in a window Charles, the Duke of York, and the where sowie
were sitting, and courtiers, retained the primitive, figure alarmed the whole neighbourhood so much, with all its sharp advancing and receding toat they united in peritioning that no angles : the one after Wren's own heart more powder should be used.
substituted curves for these deep indentWren yielded to their solicitations, and ations, by which one unbroken and beautiresolved to try tlie etfect of that ancient til winding line was obtained for the exand formidable engine the battering ram. terior, while the interior accommodation
“ He took a strong mast,” says his son, which it afforded, and the elegance which it “ of about forty teet long, arming the introduced, were such as must have struck bigger end with a great spike of iron forti- everybeholder. But if we maycredit Spence, fied wit bars along the mast and ferrels; taste bad no share in deciding the choice this mast in two pieces was hung up of the design. He says, on the authority by one ring with strong tackle, and so of Harding, that the Duke of York and suspended level to a triangle-prop, such as his party influenced all; the future king tliey weigh great gups with; thirty men, even then contemplated the revival of the fifteen on a side, vibrated this machine to popish service, and desired to have a caand again, and beat in one place against thedral with long side aisles for the sake te wall the whole day; they believed of processions. This not only caused the it was to litile porpose, not discerning any rejection of Wren's favourite design, but immediate effect; he bid them not de- materially affected the other, which was spair, but proceed another day: on the approved. The side oratories were prosecond day, the wall was perceived to posed by the duke, and though this uartremble at the top, and in a tew hours it rowed the building and broke much in fell.
upon the breadth and harmony of the inIt was not, however, until the year 1675 terior elevation, and though it was resisted that the approved plan of the structure by Wren even to tears, all was in vain was returned to the hands of the patient - the architect was obliged to comply. arehitect with the long.expected authority He made the proposed changes with a to proceed with the cathedral.
heavy heart and an uuwilling hand-he VOL. VI
knew that lie was injuring the unity of the that altitude which could not have been structure ; that be was sacrificing for the attained by the small stones of our quarsake of the nnnecessarv oratories minchiries, had the more simple style of antiquity that conduced to the beauty and lucid been adopted. arrangement of the parts; he felt that his Wren, after fifteen years of sketching fame would suffer, and as he was a sincere and controversy, having seeu all obstacles and pious man, he might mourn for the removed, commenced building with great land which he suspected was, at no spirit and under favourable auspices." In distant day, to experience the revival of the beginning of the new works of St. religions strife, As soon as the king Paul's,” says
an accident was had approved of the plan, Wren re- taken notice of by some people as a memn. solved to make no more models, nor rable onen.
Wlien the stirveyor in person publicly expose bis drawings, which expe- had set out upon the place the dimensions *nce taught him occasioned much loss of of the great done, and tired upon the time and much idle controversy with in- centre, a common labourer was desired to competent judges. His favourite model bring a Hat stone from the heaps of rubwas now laid aside that on which he had bisli, such as should first come io hand, to expended so much thought and time; it be laid for a mark and direction to the was made to scale with great accuracy, masons; the stone, which was immediately and carved with all its proper ornaments, brought and laid down for that purpose', and consisting of one order only, the happened to be a piece of a grave-stone, Corinthian, exhibited a structure at once with nothing remaining of the inscription classic and picturesque. This beautiful but this single word, in large capitals, and costly work, when St. Paul's was RESURGAM." This onien has the look finished, found sanctuary along with a fine of premeditation. model (likewise rejected) for the high The church of St. Peter's, at Rome, bad altar, over the morning prayer chapel, and twelve architects, and took one hundred there they still remain, not a little injured and forty-five years to build; that of St. and neglected ; the original drawings are Paul's was built in thirty-five years, and preserved, with much care, in the library had but one architect. There are other of All Souls' Oxford.
ditterences still. On the artists who conThe approved design has been called a ceived and raised the Roman fabric, ninefree imitation of St. Peter's at Rome, teen successive Popes showered honours, avoiding the defects of that structure, and wealılı, and indulgencies ; ou the architect including more than its beauties. Wien
St. Paul's, the king bestowed £700 a took the Gothic form of building, and year; his brother injured the unity of the sought, as he informed his son, to reconcile design ont of love for oratories; the cleriit to a better manner of architecture, with cal lay comissioners barrassed biin with a capola, and above that, iristead of a lan- captious and ignoraut criticisms; and, tern, a lofty spire, and large porticos. betore the last stone was laid, persecuted Those who estimate the genins displayed lim with rididulous and groundiess in this splendid work have to consider, charges, first, the injurious change in the original plau occasioned by the interference of the Duke of York—and secondly, the nature of the materials with which Wren had to
PRICES AND QUALITIES OF ENrear his structure. The former has robbed the exterior of much of its elegance and
GLISH AND FOREIGN TEAS.T simplicity: and the latter has compelled the architect to sacrifice breadth and ma. jesty for littleness of parts and neatness
The means of deciding as to the use which of combination. It is the nature of classic
the lodia Company have nadle of their architecture that no lofty work can be Though they have succeeded in getting
monopoly, are accessible to every one. built without such immense masses of stone as British quarries cannot at all times, for
their countrymen excluded from the trade a continuancı, yield: the Parthenon may
to China, they have not, been able to ex.
tend this exclusion to foreigners. The be attempted in freestone, but where
merchants of Liverpool and Glasgow dare would we find materials for such a temple as that of Diana, at Ephesus? Now the
not send a single ship to Canton, or inloftiness which St. Paul's required com
port a single pound of tra; but the pelled the arrhitect to imitate the Italian labour under no such prohibition. They
merchants of New York and Hamburgh style of building in preference to the an. cient Grecian; by successive stories of
† Abridged from the Ediuburgh Review.columns and courses of pilasters, he gained No. civ.
engage in the trade to China, as they en- of similar teas at Hamburgh, New York, gage in that to France, Brazil, or any &c., as deduced from the Price Currents other country, and conduct it on the prin- published in those cities. But in so far as ciple of free and untertered competition. regards the year 1848-49, we are furHere, then, we have an onerring standard nished officially with the means of comby which to try the proceedingsfut the Com- paring our prices with those of foreigners. pang. If they be really as selt-denying as In order partly to obviate any cavils that their apologists would have us to believe, miglit be made as to the statements in the prices at which they sell teas will not Price Currents, and partly, as will afterbe bigher than those at which they are wards be seen, for other purposes, letters sold in the great trading cities not sub- were sent, in 1829, by direction of the jected to any monopoly; for no one has Board of Control, to most of our Consuls ever ventured to contend that there either at the principal foreigo emporia, directing is or can be any reason, other than the them to purchase and send home samples difference between a free and a nionopoly of the different species of lea in ordinary system, wly the price of tea should ma- use in those places, with a note of their terally differ in London from its price in prices, &c. These prices were afterwards Hamburg i, New York, &c. Accounts of submitted, by order of the Committee of the quantities of the dittereut sorts of tea the House of Lords, to Dr. Kelly, the sold at the East India Company's sales, author of the “Cambist,” who converted and the prices at which they were sold, them into equivalent ones in sterling from 1814-15 to 1828-29, have been money per pound weight. Comparing, printed by order of the House of Com- therefore, the prices and quantities of mons. (Parliamentary Papers, No. 2%, teas sold by the company in 1828-29, Session 1830). Now, to determine whether with the prices of the same descriptions the prices charged by the company be ex. of teas at Hamburgh, the results, neglect. Cessive or not, we liave only io compare ing fractions of a penny, are as follow:those given in this account, with the prices
Comparative Account of the Prices of Tea at London and Hamburgh.
Now, it will be observed, that, with the teas (with the exception of Pekoe) disexception of Pekoe, the prices of all the posed of at the Company's sales by the Company's teas exceed the prices of the excess of their prices over those of Hamsamples bonght at Hamburgh by the Board burghi, and to deduct from this sum the of Control ; and, therefore, to determine quantity of Pekoe, multiplied by the ex. the total sum which the tea monopoly cess of the Hamburgh price over that of costs the people of Britain, we bave only the Company.—The account stands as to multiply thie quantities of the different follows :
Deduct Pekoes, 131,281 lbs at 9d.
the price of sinıilar teas at Hamburgh
We may further remark, that Mr. obliged to content themselves with the 'Thornely, a very intelligent merchant of damaged samples, with the refuse, in fact, Liverpool, has deduced, from a careful that is thrown aside by the Company. calculation of the prime cost of tea in Those who brought forward this stateChiva, and the expense of freight, in- ment, imagined, no doubt, that they had surance, &r. the excess of price charged made a masterly diversion in favour of by the company at 5,727,931. Mr. Rick- the company, and that by withdrawing ard's calcnlations gives very nearly the the public attention from accounts of fame results.
sales and the statements in Price Currents, It appears from this anthentic com- to fix it on an unprotitable and endless disparison of the accounts rendered by the cussion about tastes and qualities, comEast India Company with those furnished paratively little opposition would be made by the Board of Control, that the Company to a renewal of the monopoly. But this sold their teas in 1828-29, for the immense ingenious scheme has been totally subsum of 1,832,3561. more than they would verted ; and, what is yet more galling, it have fetched had the trade been free! has been subverted by those to whom the From the same official accounts rendered Company looked up for support. The by the company, it also appears, that the delegates from Manchester, Liverpool, average price of the different sorts of tea
and Glasgow, had nothing to do in the sold by them in : 1828-29, amounted to matter. The Board of Control has the 28. 4d. per lib.; and it appears froin merit of having proved, to the conviction the statements now laid hefore the reader, of every ove, that the teas sold by the that the average excess of the price of the Company, instead of being superior, are company's teas, over the price of the teas actually inferior to those sold by the free sold at Hamburgli, amounts to 18. 31. per traders on the continent and in America. lib., being an excess of more than FIFTY- We have already alluded to the circumTHREE per cent.
stance of the Board having ordered samBut the Company's advocates are not ples of tea to be purchased and sevt honie easily driven from any position). We admit, from a great variety of foreign markets. say they, that it would appear, on the When bronight home, the Board of Conface of such accounts the above, trol, desirons, we presume, of doing a that the. Company sell their teas at ay service to the Company by demonstrating enornjonsly enhanced price; but nothing the truth of their statements as to the socan be more fallacious. The teas sold by periority of their teas, had the samples the Company are, they allege, încom. submitted to the inspection of the niost parably superior in point of quality to skiltul tea-brokers of London, who were those to be met with on the continent or requested to fix the prices which they the United States; and this, they add, is supposed they would bring at the Conithe natnral result of our mode of manag- pany's sales. Nothing, it is clear, could ing the trade at Canton, where, we are be fairer 'than this proceeding. Thie told, the company's agents have the choice brokers knew nothing of the prices paid of all the teas brought to market; the by the Board of Control for the leas, Americans and otber foreigners being neither did they know whence they came