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HYALOMMA EXCAVATUM Koch, 1844.
(Figures 166 to 169)
THE SMALL HY ALOMMA
NOTE: Schulze and his co-workers employed the name H. savignyi (Gervais 1844) for this tick, and following their usual practice appended a variety of subspecific names to it. References to H. depressum, H. lusitanicum subspp., H. pusillus subspp., and rhipicephaloides also apply to H. excavatum. The name H. anatolicum, as used by Russian and French workers, applies to H. excavatum. For a list of synonyms, see Delpy (1949B, pp. 475_577).
Adler and Feldman Muhsam (1948) and Feldman_Muhsam, following Schulze's lead, applied the name H. savignyi in studies of H. excavatum. After examining Koch's type specimens, Feldman_Muhsam (1954) agreed with Delpy that H. excavatum is the proper name for this tick. This is accepted as a inal decision,
DISTRIBUTION IN THE SUDAN
H. excavatum is moderately common in northern Sudan and in the northern parts of central Sudan. No records from Darfur Province are available. The small hyalomma is generally considerably less numerous in the Sudan than in Egypt. It shows a strong predilection for horses, even in areas where other domestic animals are present in large numbers.
The following are data for material seen:
Northern; Shendi (bulls, donkeys, and horses; svs). Wadi Halfa, Abu Hamed, Atbara, and Shendi (camels, cattle, horses, donkeys, goats, and sheep; HH).
Khartoum: Khartoum, Omdurman, and Shambat (camels, horses, donkeys, cattle, goats, sheep, and dogs, SVS; Gordon College collection; HH).
Kassala: Kassala (goats, horses, cattle, and camels; svs). Port Sudan (cattle, donkeys, and horses; svs). Sinkat (horses; SVS). Tokar (cattle, horses, and donkeys; svs).
El Obeid (horses and sheep; SVS).
Blue Nile: Wad Medani (camels and horses; HH). Hassa Heissa (camels; G. B. Thompson, correspondence).
H. excavatum is common throughout northern Africa, and ranges through the Near East, Asia Minor and southern Russia to India. It is abundant locally in southern Europe, but is particularly numerous in Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor, and southern Russia.
In Africa, H. excavatum ranges along the northern and north eastern littoral, a continuous belt characterized by less than ten inches of rainfall per annum. Its southeastern limit is Somalia, The Sudan has been invaded by this parasite possibly both via the Nile from Egypt and via the Red Sea coast.
The distribution of H. excavatum has been mapped by the American Geographical Society (1954).
All references below are to H. excavatum unless otherwise noted.
ATLANTIC OCEAN: CANARY ISLANDS (Nuttall lot 3226 in BMNH; H.H. det. As H. depressum: AS H. depressum: Schulze 1919.
Schulze 1919. As H. lusitanicum cicatricosum: Schuize and Schlottke 1930. Kratz 1940).
NORTH AFRICA: MOROCCO (Blanc, Bruneau, Martin, and Maurice 1948. Blanc and Bruneau 1953,1954,1955. As H. lusitanicum: Blanc and Bruneau 1949).
ALGERIA (As H. 1, lusitanicum; Senevet 1922B,1925,1928A,B, 1937. Senevet and Rossi 1925. Kratz 1940. d'Arces 1952. As
H. lusitanicum berberum: Senevet 1922B. As H. lusitanicum algericum: Senevet 1928A. As H. savignyi: Sergent and Poncet 19347,1940, 1943. Sergent and co-workers also employed the name H. lusitanicum at one time or another. As H. lusitanicum algericum: Schulze and Schlottke 1930. As H. aegyptium im pressum: Senevet 1922B).
TUNISIA (As H. tumesiacum: Schulze and Schlottke 1930. As H. tunesiacum Tunesiacum; Kratz 1940. As H. lusitanicum depressum; Schulze and Schlottke 1930.
Schulze and Schlottke 1930. Kratz 1940. AS H. lusitanicum algericum: Colas_Belcour 1931. As H. excavatum: Colas_Belcour and Rageau 1951).
LIBYA (As H. depressum: Franchini 1927,1929E. As H. tunesiacum franchinti: Tonelli-Rondelli 1932C. As H. anatolicum; Tonelli Rondelli 1932D. As H. fezzanensis: Tonelli-Rondelli 1935. Stella 1938C. Kratz 1940. Numerous specimens in Hoogstraal collection).
EGYPT (As H. excavatum sp. nov.: Koch 1844. As H. rhipicephaloides: Neumann 1901, 1971. Schulze 1919,1921,1936F. Kratz 1940. As H. pusillum alexandrinum: Schulze 1919. As H. savignyi savignyi: Kratz 1940. As H. excavatum: Daubney and Said 1951; undoubtedly in part confused with H. impeltatum. Taylor, Mount, Hoogstraal, and Dressler 1952).
EAST AFRICA: SUDAN (Taylor, Mount, Hoogstraal, and Dressler 1952. Hoogstraal 1954B).
ERITREA (Specimens from several localities in HH collection. Apparently not reported under any known synonym by Italian workers; material probably differently identified by them). FRENCH SOMALLLAND (Hoogstraal 1953D). ITALIAN SOMALILAND (As H. lusitanicum: Franchini 1927,1929C, E. Niro 1935. As H. somalicum: Tonelli Rondelli 1935. Stella 1939A,1940.
Stella 1939A,1940. Kratz 1940).
[ ?KENYA: H. anatolicum, a synonym of H. excavatum has been reported in various notes by Lewis, and by Daubney (1937), Mulli gan (1938), and Yalvac (1939). This name derives from material identified by Schulze. Although it would not be surprising to find isolated populations in northeastern Kenya, recent workers have not encountered it and earlier specimens referred to this species are not available.)
NEAR EAST: PALESTINE (As H. anatolicum: Bodenheimer 1937. Kratz 1940. As H. rhi picephaloides Neumann 1901,1911. Schulze 1921,1936F. Kratz 1940. AS H. savignyi: Bodenheimer 1937. Adler and Feldman Muhs am 1946,1948. Feldman_Mubs am 1947,1948, 1949,1950,1951A. As H. excavatum: Feldman_Muhsam 1954.
As H. tunesiacum: Bodenheimer 1937).
SYRIA and LEBANON (Hoogstraal, ms.). IRAQ (As H. aegyptium mesopotamium: Schulze 1919. Schulze and Schlottke 1930. As H. savignyi mesopotamium: Kratz 1940. As H. excavatum: Hubbard 1955. Hoogstraal, ms.). "ARABIA" (As H. pusillum: Schulze 1919). TRÚCIAL OMAN, YEMEN, ADEN, SAUDI ARABIA (Hoogstraal, mss.). IRAN (Delpy 1946B,1949,1952). AFGHANISTAN (Anastos 1954. Hoogstraal, ms.).
TURKEY (As H. pusillus: Vogel 1927.
Vogel 1927. As H. excavatum: Kurtpinar 1954. Mimioglu 1954. One of the most common ticks on the Anatolian steppes: Hoogstraal, ms. As H. lusitanicum; Yasarol 1954).
CYPRUS / The H. savignyi exsul of Schulze and Schlottke (1930), attrIbuted by Delpy (1949B) to H. marginatum H. savignyi of Delpy), appears rather to be H. excavatum; see pp. 534-535 of Kratz
(1940) 7. EUROPE: PORTUGAL (As H. lusitanicum: Koch 1844. Schulze 1919. Kratz 1940).
SPAIN (As H. depressum: Schulze 1919. Gil Collado 1948A. As H. excavatum: De Prada, Gay, and Llorente 1950. De Prada, Gil Collado, and Mingo Alsina 1951. As H. lusitanicum: Gil Collado 1936,1948A. Kratz 1940. As H. Iusitanicum algericum: Jordano Barea 1951. NOTE: H. depressum is considered to be a synonym of H. excavatum, but the species called H. depressum by Gii Collado 1948A is one that cannot readily be determined).
FRANCE (As H. excavatum: Brumpt and Chabaud 1947. Brumpt 1949. Buttner 1949. Colas Belcour and Rageau 1951. Chabaud and Choquet 1953). ITALY (As H. lusitanicum: Schulze 1936C. Tonelli Rondelli 1938. Kratz 1940). GRWOCE (As H. anatolicum: Kratz 1940. Enigk 1947. Pandazis 1947).
RUSSIA: As H. anatolicum: Pomerantzev, Matikashvily, and Lototsky 1940. Galuzo 1944. Blagoveshchensky and Serdyukova 1946. Lototsky and Pokrovsky 1946. Pervomaisky 1954. lovsky, Pervomaisky, and Chagin 1954. Viazkova and Bernadskaia 1954. Gajdusek 1956.
As H. anatolicum anatolicum: Serdyukova 1946A,B. Markov, Gildenblāt, Kurchatov, and Petunin 1948. Pomerantzev 1950. Pervomaisky 1950A. Gajdusek 1953. Tselishcheva 1953.
As H. anatolicum excavatum: Serdyukova 1941. Pervomaisky 1949,1950A. Pomerantzev 1950. Petrisheheva 1955.
As H. asiaticum caucasicum: Pomerantzev, Matikashvily, and Lototsky 1940.
As H. excavatum: Blagoveshchensky and Serdyukova 1946. Zbmaeva, Pchelkina, Mishchenko, and Karulin 1955.
As H. turkmeniense: Olenev 1931A,C. Kornienko_Koneva and Simulreva 1944. Chumakov, Petrova, and Sondak 1945. Pomerantzev 1946. Markov, Gildenblat, Kurchatov, and Petunin 1948. As H. tunisiacum turkmeniense: Kratz 1940. Delpy (1949B) considered H. turkmeniense as questionably a synonym of H. excavatum; Pomerantzev (1950) synonymizes it under H. excavatum H. anatolicum).
?As H. savignyi armeniorum: Olenev 1929A. Schulze and Schlottke 1930. Lototsky and Popov 1934. As H. armeniorum: Kratz 1940.7
[ ?As H. savignyi: Zolotarev 1934. Galuzo 1935,1941,1944. Bernadskaia 19390,1943. Pavlovsky 1940. Zotova and Bolditzina 1943. Galuzo, Bolditzina, and Kaitmazova 1944. For a discussion of Delpy's remarks concerning Soviet confusion between H. excavatim and H. marginatum = H. savignyi) see page 47. 7
As H. rhipicephaloides: Yakimov 1922,1923. Olenev 1929B.