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ECONOMY Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables (less than 4% of land is arable) Major industries: tourism, sheep, timber, tobacco, and smuggling Electric power: 25,000 kW capacity (1978); 100 million kWh produced (1978), 3,448 kWh per capita; power is mainly exported to Spain and France Major trade partners: Spain, France

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Nationality: noun–Angolan(s); adjective—Angolan Ethnic divisions: 93% African, 5% European, 1% mestizo Religion: about 84% animist, 12% Roman Catholic, 4% Protestant Language: Portuguese (official), many native dialects Literacy: 10-15% Labor force: 2.6 million economically active (1964); 531,000 wage workers (1967) Organized labor: approx. 65,000 (1967)

GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of Angola Type: republic; achieved independence from Portugal in November 1975; constitution promulgated 1975; government formed after civil war which ended in early 1976 Capital: Luanda Political subdivisions: 17 provinces including the coastal exclave of Cabinda Legal system: formerly based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; being modified along “socialist” model National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November Branches: the official party is the supreme political institution Government leader: José Eduardo dos Santos, President Suffrage; to be determined Elections: none held to date Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party (MPLA-Labor Party), led by dos Santos, only legal party; National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), defeated in civil war, carrying out insurgencies Member of: G-77, ILO, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNICEF, WHO


ECONOMY GDP: $2.66 billion (1978 est.), $440 per capita, 6.1% real growth (1970–72); real GDP growth has declined by at least 15% since independence; 5% drop in 1978 Agriculture: cash crops—coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar, manioc, and tobacco; food crops—cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas, and other local foodstuffs; largely self-sufficient in food Fishing: catch 113,408 metric tons (1977) Major industries: mining (oil, diamonds), fish processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar processing, textiles, cement, food processing plants, building construction Electric power: 525,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.3 billion kWh produced (1977), 210 kWh per capita Exports: est. $800 million (f.o.b., 1977); oil, coffee, diamonds, sisal, fish and fish products, iron ore, timber, corn, and cotton; exports down sharply 1975-77


Imports: est. $720 million (f.o.b., 1977); capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), wines, bulk iron and ironwork, steel and metals, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; military deliveries partially offset drop in imports in 1975-77

Major trade partners: Cuba, U.S.S.R., Portugal, and U.S.

Budget: (1975) balanced at about $740 million by former Portuguese administration; budget not yet published by new government

Monetary conversion rate; 40.643 escudos=US$1 as of November 1977

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gage, 310 km 0.600-meter gage Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 28,723 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth Inland waterways: 3,220 km navigable Ports: 3 major (Luanda, Lobito, Moçâmedes), 15 minor Pipelines: crude oil, 179 km Civil air: 21 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in Airfields: 457 total, 452 usable; 27 with permanentsurface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 96 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of wire and radio-relay; troposcatter/radio relay system under construction; HF used extensively for military/Cuban links; 1 Atlantic Ocean

satellite station; 32,000 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 14 AM, 5 FM, and 1 TV station


Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,608,000; 806,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (20) annually, 62,000


LAND 280 km”; 54% arable, 5% pasture, 14% forested, 9% unused but potentially productive, 18% wasteland and built on; the islands of Redonda (less than 2.6 km" and uninhabited), and Barbuda (161 km") are dependencies

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 mm
Coastline: 153 km

PEOPLE Population: 74,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 1.3% (7-70 to 7-77)

Nationality: noun—Antiguan(s); adjective—Antiguan Ethnic divisions: almost entirely African Negro

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ECONOMY GDP: $52 million (1977 est.), $720 per capita; 2.0% real growth Agriculture: main crop, cotton Major industries: oil refining, tourism Shortages: electric power Electric power: 31,200 kW capacity (1977); 60 million kWh produced (1977), 780 kWh per capita Exports: $22 million (f.o.b., 1975); petroleum products, cotton Imports: $54 million (c.i.f., 1975); crude oil, food, clothing Major trade partners: 30% U.K., 25% U.S., 18% Commonwealth Caribbean countries (1975) Aid: economic—bilateral commitments, including Ex-Im (1970–77) from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $15 million; no military aid Budget: (current) revenues, $12 million; current expenditures, $15 million (1977/78) Monetary conversion rate: EC $2.70=US$1 (1979) Fiscal year: 1 April-30 March

Railroads: 78 km narrow gage (0.760 m), employed
almost exclusively for handling cane
Highways: 380 km total; 240 km main, 140 km secondary
Ports: 1 major (St. Johns), 1 minor
Civil air; 9 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in
Airfields: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with asphalt runway 2,745 m
Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 4,000
telephones (5.4 per 100 popl.); tropospheric scatter links with
Tortola and St. Lucia; 3 AM stations, 2 FM stations, and 2
TV stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable

(East Caribbean)


LAND 2,771,300 km”; 57% agricultural (11% crops, improved

pasture and fallow, 46% natural grazing land), 25% forested,

18% mountain, urban, or waste Land boundaries: 9,414 km

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm (continen-

tal shelf, including sovereignty over superjacent waters) Coastline: 4,989 km

Population: 27,002,000 (January 1980), average annual
growth rate 1.3% (current)
Nationality: noun—Argentine(s); adjective—Argentine
Ethnic divisions: approximately 85% white, 15% mestizo,
Indian, or other nonwhite groups
Religion: 90% nominally Roman Catholic (less than 20%
practicing), 2% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 6% other

Pacific 0cean



(See reference map III/

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 85% (90% in Buenos Aires)

Labor force: 10.8 million; 19% agriculture, 25% manufacturing, 20% services, 11% commerce, 6% transport and communications, 19% other; 2.2% estimated unemployment (1978 est.)

Organized labor; 25% of labor force (est.)

GOVERNMENT Legal name: Argentine Republic Type: republic; under military rule since 1976 Capital: Buenos Aires Political subdivisions: 22 provinces, 1 district (Federal Capital), and 1 territory Legal system: based on Spanish and French civil codes; constitution adopted 1853 partially superseded in 1966 by the Statute of the Revolution which takes precedence over the constitution when the two are in conflict, further changes may be made by new government; judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at University of Buenos Aires and other public and private universities; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May Branches: presidency; national judiciary Government leader: President, Lt. Gen. (Ret.) Jorge Rafael Videla, chosen by the three-man Junta that took power on 24 March 1976 Government structure: The President and the Junta, composed of the chiefs of the three armed services, retain supreme authority; active duty or retired officers fill all but three cabinet posts and administer all provincial and many local governments; in addition, the military now oversee the nation's principal labor confederation and unions, as well as other civilian pressure groups; Congress has been disbanded and all political activity suspended; a five-man Legislative Council, composed of senior officers, advises the junta on lawmaking



Political parties: a number of civilian political groupings remain potentially influential, despite the suspension of all partisan activity; these include Justicialist Party (Peronist coalition that formerly governed) and the Radical Civic Union, center-left party providing the chief civilian opposition to the Peronists; the Moscow-oriented Communist Party remains legal, but extreme leftist splinter groups have been outlawed

Communists: some 70,000 members in various party organizations, including a small nucleus of activists

Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor movement, General Economic Confederation (Peronist-leaning association of small businessmen), Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturer's association), Argentine Rural Society (large landowner's association), business organizations, students, and the Catholic Church

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, ISO, ITU, IWC–International Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat Council, LAFTA, NAM, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO, WSG

ECONOMY GNP; $45 billion (1978), $1,700 per capita; 73% consumption, 21% investment, 6% net foreign demand (1978); real GDP growth rate 1978, -4.1% Agriculture: main products—cereals, oilseeds, livestock products; Argentina is a major world exporter of temperate zone foodstuffs Fishing: catch 392,789 metric tons (1977); exports $42 million (1976 est.) Major industries: food processing (especially meatpacking), motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals, printing, and metallurgy Crude steel: 2.8 million metric tons produced (1978), 110 kg per capita Electric power: 9.16 million kW capacity (1977); 29 billion kWh produced (1978), 1,090 kWh per capita Exports: $6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1978); meat, corn, wheat, wool, hides, oilseeds Imports: $4.0 billion (c.i.f., 1978); machinery, fuel and lubricating oils, iron and steel, intermediate industrial products Major trade partners (1978): exports—10% Netherlands, 9% Brazil, 8% Italy, 8% U.S., 6% FRG, U.S.S.R., and Japan; imports—18% U.S., 12% FRG, 9% Brazil, 8% Italy, 7% Japan Aid: (FY70-76) economic—from U.S. $248 million; from other Western countries $797 million; from Communist countries $458 million; military—from U.S. $137 million Budget: (1978) 920,500 billion pesos=$17 billion at exchange rate of 1 May 1978 Monetary conversion rate: 1,500 pesos=US$1 (October 1979) Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 39,738 km total; 3,086 km standard gage (1.435 m), 22,788 km broad gage (1.676 m), 13,461 km meter gage (1.000 m), 403 km 0.750-meter gage Highways: 207,300 km total, of which 43,900 km paved, 39,500 km gravel, 104,000 km improved earth, 19,900 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable Ports: 7 major, 21 minor Pipelines: 4,090 km crude oil; 2.200 km refined products; 8,172 km natural gas Civil air: 45 major transport aircraft including 2 leased in Airfields: 2,433 total, 2,164 usable; 98 with permanentsurface runways; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 315 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: extensive modern system; telephone network has 2.59 million sets (9.5 per 100 popl.), radio relay widely used, 1 satellite station with 2 Atlantic Ocean antennas; 160 AM, 12 FM, and 64 TV stations

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Population: 14,476,000 (January 1980), average annual
growth rate 1.1% (current)
Nationality: noun—Australian(s); adjective—Australian
Ethnic divisions: 99% Caucasian, 1% Asian and aborigine
Religion: 98% Christian
Language: English
Literacy: 98.5%
Labor force: 6.4 million; 14% agriculture, 32% industry,
37% services, 15% commerce, 2% other; 6% unemployment
Organized labor: 44% of labor force

GOVERNMENT Legal name: Commonwealth of Australia Type: federal state recognizing Elizabeth II as sovereign or head of state Capital: Canberra Political subdivisions: 6 states and 2 territories (Australian Capital Territory (Canberra) and Northern Territory) Legal system: based on English common law; constitution adopted 1900; High Court has jurisdiction over cases involving interpretation of the constitution; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: 26 January Branches: Parliament (House of Representatives and Senate); Prime Minister and Cabinet responsible to House; independent judiciary Government leaders: Governor General Sir Zelman Cowen; Prime Minister J. Malcolm Fraser Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: held at 3-year intervals, or sooner if Parliament is dissolved by Prime Minister; last election December 1977 Political parties and leaders: Government—Liberal Party (Malcolm Fraser) and National Country Party (Douglas Anthony); opposition—Labour Party (William J. Hayden) Voting strength (1977 Parliamentary election): lower house: Liberal-Country Coalition, 86 seats; Labour Party, 38 seats; Senate: Liberal Country Coalition, 35 seats; Labour, 26 seats; Democrats, 2 seats; Independents, 1 seat Communists: 5,000 members (est.) Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Labour Party (anti-Communist Labour Party splinter group) Member of ADB, AIOEC, ANZUS, CIPEC (associate), Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, DAC, ELDO, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC–International Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

GNP; $109.9 billion (1978), $7,720 per capita; 60% private

consumption, 16% government current expenditure, 24%

investment (1975), 1% real average annual growth (1975-78)

Agriculture: large areas devoted to livestock grazing; 60% of area used for crops is planted in wheat; major products— wool, livestock, wheat, fruits, sugarcane; self-sufficient in food; caloric intake, 3,300 calories per day per capita Fishing: catch 127,839 metric tons (1977); exports $94.5 million (FY75), imports $86.2 million (FY75) Major industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals Crude steel: 7.8 million metric tons produced (FY76), 570 kg per capita Electric power: 23,505,000 kW capacity (1978); 87.9 billion kWh produced (1978), 6, 180 kWh per capita Exports: $14.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); principal products (1977)—44% agricultural products, 14% metalliferous ores, 13% wool, 12% coal Imports: $14.3 billion (c.i.f., 1978); principal products (1977)—41% manufactured raw materials, 28% capital equipment, 25% consumer goods Major trade partners: (1978) exports—34% Japan, 12% U.S., 5% New Zealand, 4% U.K.; imports—19% U.S., 11% U.K., 21% Japan Aid: economic—Australian aid abroad $3.6 billion (FY65-79); $455 million (FY79), 51% for Papua New Guinea Budget: expenditures, A$28.8 billion; receipts A$26.1 billion (FY79) Monetary conversion rate: 0.87 Australian dollar=US$1 (A$1=US$1.15), December 1978

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 40,851 km total (1979); 9, 187 km 1.60-meter gage, 13,394 km standard gage (1.435 m), 17,625 km 1.067-meter gage; 800 km electrified (June 1962); government-owned (except for few hundred kilometers of privately owned track) Highways: 837,872 krn total (1979); 207,650 km paved, 205,454 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized soil surface, 424,768 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallowdraft craft Ports: 12 major, numerous minor Pipelines: crude oil, 740 km; refined products, 340 km; natural gas, 6,947 km Civil air: around 150 major transport aircraft Airfields: 1,614 total, 1,554 usable; 202 with permanentsurface runways, 2 with runways over 3,660 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 614 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: very good international and domestic service; 5.8 (41.5 per 100 popl.) million telephones; 223 AM stations, 5 FM stations, l l l TV stations; 3 earth satellite stations; submarine cables to New Zealand, New Guinea, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Guam

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