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ere he sailed for Canada, he would, it re-act for evil or for good on the chais likely, have regarded the exhibitions racter (properly so called) of those of Yankee petulance with a somewhat who wear them. In these views, we more tolerant eye.

have no doubt our intelligent readers At the same time, nothing can be in America will perfectly coincide with more just and true, than the general Mr Howison ; and, altogether, as we conclusions which Mr Howison draws have already hinted, we think his book from his own observation of the state will be a favourite one in America as of manners on the New Continent, well as in England. both in Canada and in the United Mr John Howison, the author of States. Himself apparently by no these Sketches of Upper Canada, is, means tinged with any deep aristocra- we understand, the brother of that tical notions, he is constrained to ac- Mr William Howison, who has alknowledge that the equality (as it is ready excited so many bright expectacalled) of American society, is the tions by his beautiful Frugments and greatest curse of that society ; that Fictions, published under the name of the manners of the vulgar are brutal- M. de Peudemots; and by his Essay on ized to a horrible degree by that al- the Sentiments of Aduptation, &c. We most total absence of superior models, doubt whether there be another famiwhich is observable in Canada more ly in the empire that can boast the particularly; and, finally, that extere possession of two such rising lights of nal manners, although not certainly in letters, and hope both brothers will themselves the first objects of philoso- exert themselves to keep up the hopes

phical attention, are fit objects of very that have been formed, or, as we may - serious consideration, in as much as, more properly express it, to redeem : be they good or ill, they cannot fail to the pledges that have been given.

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CHRISTOPHE, LATE EMPEROR OF HAYTI.

To Christopher North, Esq. Sing-As Supplementary to an Article which appeared in your fifty-first number, relative to the late Emperor of Hayti, the subjoined Letter will perhaps gratify some of your readers. They will be glad to recognize, in an inde pendent document, statements verifying the inferences, which I then considered as fairly deducible from the Imperial Rescript, addressed to Mr W., and which it would not be difficult abundantly to sustain by other collateral proofs. As it is, I feel a melancholy pleasure in thus offering to the once powerful Christophe, on the good old principle, my sacrifice after sunset !

It may, probably, create a farther interest in the fame of the Departed, if I add, that his daughters, (now, with their mother, in England,) are represented by their hospitable friends, as well-bred and simple-minded young women, characterized chiefly by their timidity, and a tinge of seriousness, which the recent events of their life have been but too well adapted to create. One does not, surely, readily derive such dispositions and habits from a bloody and

luxurious parent,

Nec imbellem feroces

Progenerant. But, if they pluck the “precious jewel” from adversity, they will have no cause to regret their fallen fortunes. The widow is said to be a good-humoured and pleasing woman ; but less refined, as might be expected, and less accomplished than her daughters.

Out of the wrecks of their shattered greatness, it is trusted that enough has been collected to render them independent. If Christophe had been as rapacious for private purposes, as his calumniators contend, would he not have invested, out of his millions, large sums in foreign funds, for his family's use; in the contemplation of that cola Sunto' Te pea noulos, which his own observation must so forcibly have impressed on his mind ?

After the testimony, indeed, borne by Lord Byron to the courtesy of Ali Pacha, it may now, perhaps, be questioned, whether

the civilities (hearty and unpretending as they appear to have been,) recorded in the annexed epistle,

or

F.W.

contain evidences of a friendly disposition or a kind heart. But, at the risk of being classed among the dupes of a mock patriotism, or a spurious humanity, I am willing to regard the efforts of Christophe to purify the morality of his re

est troops cently liberated and ill educated countrymen-particularly with respect to adultery and duelling, as establishing his magnanimity in its best acceptation

. The concupiscible

and irascible passions, which prompt the Venerem et praling were not likely to be easily controlled in bosoms drawing intensity of feeling -Hayt of every kind, from the region which has supplied our stage with its Oroonorite kos, its Zangas, and its Othellos ; warped as they must farther have been, by a sense of many wrongs, and stimulated, for the first time, by the intoxicating A cup of sudden emancipation.

n! Neither does his unceasing zeal to introduce a better education throughout his new dominions, or the enthusiasm with which the toast, proposing bis health, was received at the governor's table, naturally announce the savage the tyrant.

I might also appeal to his excellent character, as a husband and a father; for, though instances of conjugal and parental affection are not wanting among barbarians and despots, they seldom show themselves in so rational and so consistent a manner as in the case of the Emperor of Hayti.

But I leave these, and other deductions, to the good sense of the public.-
Yours, &c.
Yorkshire, Dec. 1, 1821.

IPHIGENIA, Port Royal, not immediately about the King, is

JUNE 6, 1819. said to have greater influence than any (On board of which the writer was a

other man. The Admiral then waited

dhe Lieutenant.)

on the Duke of Marmalade, governor MY DEAR *****

of Cape Henry; after which we sat ACCORDING to promise, I sit down down to breakfast, and found a most to give you as full an account of our sumptuous entertainment provided

. reception at Cape Henry, as my recol. The only difference between our break lection will furnish me with, as I am fasts and dinners, promised a conveyance for it by a pri tea at the former, and more wine drank vate hand. The Admiral landed at six in the

at the latter; in other respects they morning of May 16 ; his party con- all the other component parts sisting of Captains Parker and Cox, splendid dinner being provided at both, Lieutenant King of the Beaver, Mr together with wine of every descrip, Gahan, Dr Macnamara, surgeon of the tion; in short, the greatest gourmand Port Royal Hospital, and myself. Sir would have smiled at the succession of Home Popham was received at the landing-place by a guard of honour, stituted them. Sixteen places were

courses and the good things that conwhere carriages were waiting to convey provided for whatever guests Sir H. reception, which we found to be a very riages and horses were the party to the house allotted for our Popham thought proper to invite. Cargood one-uncommonly clean, well in readiness ; but in consequence. and plenty of servants; the lower part, furnished, and provided with a library the extreme heat of the weather, (the

sun at this time being exactly vertical) with the exception of the kitchen and other offices, being fitted up as a tem- morning, and after dinner, when the pied during our stay by a guard com- places; his Haytia

ni Majesty's chien manded by a Captain, who always paigne promoting wonderful emulation turned out on the Admiral's going from among the horsemen.

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and one at the head of the staircase. neighbourhood of the town, particuBaron Dupuy here received the Admi- larly the scenes of several desperate ral, and did the honours during the first battles fought between the natives and day, giving us all a most hearty wel. the French, during their struggle for fourth remove from black,) and though of these battles, the enthusiasm and

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devotion of the undisciplined negroes Frenchman without expressing a gein the cause of liberty, overcame the nerous indignation. It is said to be best troops France could send against Christophe's intention to restore the them ; although they frequently were town to its former state, when the inarmed with no other weapons than a dependence of his country is acknowlong stick with a spike-nail at the end. ledged by France, and guaranteed by The Haytians feel an honest pride in England; for without Great Britain pointing out these places, rendered sa- being a third party, such is their opicred by their heroic achievements. nion of French perfidy, they will not

Cape Henry, when in possession of even enter into a negociation with them. France, (then called Cape François,) In the meantime, as he is in constant was considered one of the richest, and expectation of an attempt on the part certainly was the most splendid city in of France to recover her colonies in St the West Indies—with a population of Domingo, he does not much encourage sixty thousand. It was so celebrated building in the sea-port towns; as it for its magnificence, luxury, and dis- is his policy, in the event of an attack, sipation, that it bore the name of the to render them useless to the enemy, "Western Paris.” But with all this, and retire to the inland fortresses or scarcely any town ever fell so com- mountains, where their active harasspletely a victim to revolutionary fury; ing system of warfare, aided by their Not a single house or church escaped climate, (so fatal to Europeans,) will conflagration. Their ruins still denote soon destroy any force France can send their former splendour. The remains against them. of the cathedral are among the most Individuals, however, have repaired striking objects. These occupy one and fitted up their houses in a very side of a large square, at the head of handsome manner, and all that are which the king's palace now stands. inhabited are of a very comfortable This

square was the theatre for num- description. Eberless inhuman spectacles, during In my humble opinion, an attempt

the struggle between liberty and op- to subjugate Hayti, woull be perfect

pression. The French at that time madness. The people have tasted the * made a practice, when they captured blessings of liberty and independence; * a black officer, of nailing his epaulettes and the obnoxious recollection of their

to his shoulders; and, after allowing former state is too fresh in every man's *** these unfortunate men a sufficient time memory, to admit of their again sub= to suffer under their tortures, they ge- mitting their necks to so galling a

nerally put a period to their lives by yoke. Their mountains and forests nailing their caps to their heads, by afford a natural defence, from which way of derision. The private men no human power can dislodge a people were tortured to death in various ways; so devoted to their country. Besides the most common of which was, to boil this, the talents of the King as a gethem alive over a slow fire, or to con- neral, as well as of many of his officers, sume them gradually, by commencing are by no means despicable. This he at their feet, and burning upward. In has manifested during the revolutionaddition to these, whole ship-loads ary war, and in his wars with the rewere taken outside the harbour, and publican part of the island. His army there scuttled ; and where they were (which is uncommonly well armed, not despatched by wholesale, four or clothed, and disciplined) at present five were sewed up in a bag together, consists of three nominal

, but only two and so thrown overboard. After suf- complete regiments of cavalry, three fering these horrible cruelties, can nominal, and two complete regiments their present antipathy to their former of artillery, one regiment of engineers, tyrants be wondered 'at? Although at and nineteen complete regiments of the conclusion of this inhuman war, infantry, each of two battalions ; the the Haytians had an opportunity of whole amounting to 35,000. Their visiting their oppressors with the same high state of discipline is admirable; cruelties they had themselves suffered, in fact, the minutiæ of military duty they shewed much more moderation, are entered into with the same preciand in the end suffered the remnant sion as in the British army. The arms of the French to embark on board a are all of English manufacture, with British squadron. To the present time the Tower mark upon them, purchased a native of Hayti never mentions, a from the Austrians, Prussians, and

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Spaniards, who were so liberally sup- A short time ago, three Judges were plied during the late war by Great sent to the Citadel Henry, to work as Britain. The centinels are obsiged to labourers, on being convicted of parstand like statues from the time they tiality, and were kept at hard labour are posted, until relieved, without be- for a month! ing permitted to move one way or The King is in all things absolutely las other. Those at the palace have little He is the sole proprietor of land, the pedestals to stand upon. Nothing, produce of which is sold for the bene- azeltior even of a very minor consequence, can fit of the State. No other personele Is occur without the King's knowledge. whatever can have a freehold: but als His memory is so good, that he is ac- tracts of land are granted by lease at quainted with every man in the army, a nominal rent, in reward for services

, as well by name and person, as by the King constantly retaining the roy; character.

alty. Cattle and sheep are also a royal ort, a The laws of Hayti are very severe; monopoly. The revenue arising from but, when it is considered that the the above, and 10 per cent duty levied King, on his accession to the throne, indiscriminately on all imports and found his country in the utmost con- exports, more than double the expendifusion, insubordination, and demoral- ture of the country. The whole treaization, the necessary severity of the sure collected at Sans Souci is immense. “ Code Henry” will appear obvious. Twelve millions sterling is consider

, This great and wonderful man, in the ably below the medium statement I space of ten years, has corrected all heard respecting it. Whatever gold the numberless abuses which he found or silver is deposited in the treasury, existing; and his endeavours to esta« never again sees day-light. All pay: blish morality have been eminently ments are made in produce, which the successful. The penalty for adultery, merchants are obliged to purchase is death to both parties; but I under- with gold or silver, or European goods; stand there is not an instance of its so that money is constantly flowing for having been rigidly put in force. On into the country, without any leaving a recent occasion, however, the Coun- it. tess of Rosiene (a white woman) was Several manufactures are brought obliged to ride through the streets of to considerable perfection. Mahogany points Sans Souci in a state perfect nudity, chairs and tables, together with most at noon-day, on the back of a donkey, other descriptions of furniture, are as with her face toward the tail, for a highly finished here as in England

. breach of chastity, her paramour suf- The magnificent palace of Sans Souci fering a still more severe punishment is almost entirely fitted up with things A great proportion of the coloured of native manufacture. "What most women are kept mistresses. Some surprised me were the carriages (one le droit months ago, heavy rains occasioned a belonging to the King, the other to river to overflow its banks, and change the Prince Royal) both built at Sans its course, to the almost total destruc- Souci, and finished with equal taste

, tion of several plantations. The King lightness, and elega immediately determined to dam it up stood beside them of English build

, in its proper channel. To carry this All the ornamental parts were of solid into effect, he issued an order for all silver; and that metal was women of bad or doubtful character, for iron wherever it was possible

. The of whatever rank, to be employed in royal stud is very large

, and the stables carrying clay, and the other requisite are kept in the most beautiful order

, materials to the workmen, which was under the direction of an English strictly put in force under the inspec- groom, with a sala ty of 1600 dollars tion of black female overseers. ling is not allowed, without the King's also founderies for casting shot.

Duel- a-year. Gun-powdermills are worked, permission being first obtained, which ment on this law is certain death to ed. Schools on the Lancastrian prin. he very seldom grants. An infringe- of the rising genera tion is not neglectboth parties, and imprisonment for ciple are established at all the principal the seconds. Every person has the towns, under the direction of English the courts of law, if he conceives him- troduced instead of French. An

in a self to have been unjustly dealt with. demy for instruction in geography,

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mathematics, and the classics, is also for military stores of every description. established at Cape Henry, under the During the latter part of the last year, direction of an English clergyman, it suffered very much from lightping; The admiral visited these institutions, which, communicating with a magaand was much pleased with their order zine, occasioned a most terrible exand regularity, and with the proficien.. plosion, destroying a considerable part cy of the boys, several of whom were ex, of the works, and blowing up 350 men, amined for his satisfaction. The whole together with a vast quantity of stores, expense is defrayed by the King, who and some treasures. The flames were frequently inspects them in person. rapidly approaching the principal ma

The hospitals, both military and gazine, containing upwards of 400 tons: charitable, are not less admirable. The of powder, and were probably only military is under the direction of Dr stopped by the King's great presence Stewart, a man not less to be admired of mind and intrepid example. . The for his professional abilities, than for instant he became acquainted with the his hospitality and gentlemanly man- accident, he repaired to the spot, and, ners. We went over them, and found in defiance of the prayers and advice is much method and regularity exist- of those around him, rushed through ing here, as at the Royal Hospital at the flames, followed by many others, Haslar. Dr Stewart has a carte blanche and, by dint of personal exertions, from the King; and nothing is wante succeeded in removing or destroying ing for the comfort and accommoda, the whole of the powder in time to ition of the patients. One thing ap- save the çitadel from total destruction. peared rather ludicrous and unneces- The flames were soon afterwards got sary, which was, a pair of stocks fitted under, but not șefore a very considers to every bed-place, in which the legs able damage had been done. It is of the occupier are immediately put, now repaired and enlarged, and in on the least symptom of insubordina- other respects considerably improved, tion. Dr Stewart assured us, that With respect to his domestic chacoercive measures were absolutely ne- racter, I was assured he was a most cessary; as, from the great ignorance excellent father and hushand, and has of some of the negroes, it was impos- spared no pains in giving his children sible to induce them to take their me- a finished education. The Princesses licines by mild ones.

have had the advantage of English To this state Haïty has been brought governesses, and are said to be highly in the sixteenth year of its independ, accomplished. The Prince Royal has ince, by a people whom some have been brought up by the Baron Vasti, he wiekedness to reproach with being an exceedingly clever and gentlemanhe link of affinity between the human ly white man, author of several wellind the brute creation.

written publications. During our stay The general residence of the King at the Cape, I had the pleasure to be s Sans Souci, a palace built by hims come well acquainted with him, and elf near a town of that name, situated liked him very much. The Queen is ibout fifteen miles from Cape Henry, a very amiable and charitable woman, it is said that more than two millions quite

destitute of the affectation, which terling have been expended on this generally accompanies so extraordinary nagnificent structure, which is placed a rise as hers. She is fond of relating in such an elevated position, that the her adventures during the revolution, hermometer seldom rises higher than the whole of which time she accomis". Near to this is the Citadel Hen- panied her husband, with her chily, which stands on the summit of dren on her back, often without any me of the highest mountains in the other food than wild fruit and berries, ountry: From its natural strength and generally exposed to the weather, of position, together with its very jų. sometimes half clothed. licious and elaborate defences of art, During our stay, we were entertained tis justly reckoned the 'Gibraltar' of every evening with balls, given for our he West Indies. Three hundred and amusement by the order, and at the ex, ixty pieces of artillery are mounted pence of the King. The colours of the in the ramparts ; two years provisions company varied from the

black to the ire constantly kept up for a complete, white, Some of the Creoles were un, arrison, and it is the principal depôt commonly pretty, and agreeable ; and VOL. X.

32

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