Page images

Who is of both numbers, and is thus declined:

Singular and Plural.



Whom. Which, that, and what, are likewise of both numbers, but they do not vary their terminations; except that whose is sometimes used as the possessive case of which; as, “ Is there any other doctrine whose followers are punished ?"

66 And the fruit
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste
Brought death."

" Pure the joy without allay,
Whose very rapture is tranquillity."

YOUNG. “ The lights and shades whose well-accorded strife

Gives all the strength and colour of our life." РОРЕ.. " This is one of the clearest characteristics of its being a religion whose origin is divine."

BLAIR By the use of this license, one word is substituted for three : as, “ Philosophy, whose end is to instruct us in the knowledge of nature,” for, “ Philosophy, the end of which is to instruct us,” &c.

Who and which have sometimes the words soever and ever annexed to them : as, “whosoever, or whoever, which soever or whichever ;' but they are seldom used in nodern style.

The word that is sometimes a relative, sometimes a de. monstrative pronoun, and sometimes a conjunction. It is a relative, when it may be turned into who or which with out destroying the sense : as, They that (who) reprove us, may be our best friends ; " " From every thing that (which) you see, derive instruction." It is a demonstraa tire pronoun when it is followed immediately by a substantive, to which it is either joined, or refers, and wliich it limits or qualifies : as, “ 7 hat boy is indusirious ;"" " That belongs to me;" meaning, that book, that desk, &c. It iz al conjunction, when it joins sentences together and can". it be turned into who or which, without destroying the $21,8: as, “ Take care that every well employed." "] mpete will believe that I have not acted improper!y."


tion; as,

Who, which, and what, are called Interrogatives, when they are used in asking questions; as, “ Who is he !" Which is the book ?What art thou doing?”. Whether was formerly made use of to signify interroga

" Whether of these shall I choose ?” but it is now seldom used, the interrogative which being substituted for it. Some grammarians think that the use of it should be revived, as, like either and neither, it points to the dual number; and would contribute to render our expressions concise and definite.

Some writers have classed the interrogatives as a separate kind of pronouns ; but they are too nearly related to the relative

pronouns, both in nature and form, to render such a division proper. They do not, in fact, lose the character of relatives, when they become interrogatives. The only difference is, that without an interrogation, the relatives have reference to a subject which is antecedent, definite, and known ; with an interrogation, to a subject which is subsequent, indefinite, and unknown, and which it is ex. pected that the answer should express and ascertain.

SECTION 3.Of the Adjective Fronouns. Adjective Pronouns are of a mixed nature, participating the properties both of pionouns and adjectives.

The adjective pronouns may be sutdivided into four sorts, namely, the possessive, the distributive, the derroristrative, and the indefinite.

1. The possessive are those which relate to panas sion or property. There are seven of them in my, thy, his, her, our, your, their.

Mine and thine', instead of my and thy, we merly used before a substantive, or adjective, ***, ** ning with a vowel, or a silent h: as, “ Blot mine iniquities. The possessives, his, mine, thine, may

be account ther possessive pronouns, or the possessive cases or respective personal pronouns."

[ocr errors]

When the possessive pronouns are prefixed to substantives, or are parted from them only by an adjective, they admit of no variation, whatever be the number or case of the noun : as, My young cousin is dead; I know thy parents I have heard of his extraordinary merit; she lives with her mother ; our books are torn; I will come to your house ; their situation is miserable.

When they are separated from the noun by a verb, or when the noun is understood, all of them except his, vary their terminations : as, This hat is mine, and the other is thine ; those trinkets are hers; this house is ours, and that is yours; theirs is more commodious than ours. But these variations are, in fact, the possessive cases of the personal pronouns.

The two words own and self, are used in conjunction with pronouns. Own is added to possessives, both singular and plural : as, My own hand, our own house."

Is is em phatical, and implies a silent contrariety or opposition: as, “ I live in my own house,” that is, “not in a hired house." Self is added to possessives: as, myself, yourselves; and sometimes to personal pronouns: as, himself, itself, themselves. It then, like own, expresses emphasis and oppositian : “ I did this myself," that is, “ not another;" or it forms a reciprocal pronoun: as, “ We hurt ourselves by vain rage."

Himself, themselves, are now used in the nominative case, instead of hisself, theirselves : as, “ He came himself;"" He himself shall do this;" “ They performed it themselves."

2. The distributive are those which denote the persons or things that make up a number, as taken separately and singly. They are each, every, eithers as, " Each of his brothers is in a favourable situation ;

Every man must account for himse f;" “ I have not seen either of them.”

Each relates to two or more persons or things, and sis nifies either of the two, or every one of any numbcr tahen separately.

Every relates to several persors or things, and signifies th one of them all taken separately. This pronou? vesi immerly rised apart froin its moun, but it is now onnst

: as,

other; as,

annexed to it, except in legal proceedings : as, in the phrase “ all and every of them.”

Either relates to two persons or things taken separately, and signifies the one or the other. To say, “ either of the three," is therefore improper. Neither imports “ not either ;" that is, not one nor the

“ Neither of my friends was there." 3. The demonstrative are those which precisely point out the subjects to which they relate: this and that, these and those, are of this class : as, “ This is true charity ; that is only its image.”

This refers to the nearest person or thing, and that to the most distant : as, " This man is. more intelligent than that." This indicates the latter, or last mentioned ; that, the former or first mentioned: as, " Both wealth and poverty are temptations ; that, tends to excite pride, this, discontent."

Perhaps the words former and latter may be properly ranked amongst the demonstrative pronouns, especially in many of their applications. The following sentence may serve as an example: “ It was happy for the state that Fabius continued in the command with Minucius : the for. mer's phlegm was a check upon the latter's vivacity."

4. The indefinite are those which express their subjeets in an indefinite or general manner. The following are of this kind : some, other, any, one, all, such, &c.

Of these pronouns,only the words one and other are varied. One has a possessive case, which it forms in the same manner as substantives: as, one, one's. This word has a general signification, meaning people at large; and sometimes also a peculiar reference to the person who is speaking : as, One ought to pity the distresses of mankind." “ One is apt to love one's self.” This word is often used, by good wri ters, in the plural number: as," The greatones of the wont The boy wounded the old bird, and stole the your Pły wife and the little ones are in good health


[ocr errors]

" the

Other is declined in the following manner :



Other's Others'.

Others. The plural others is only used when apart from the noun to which it refers, whether expressed or understood : as, When you have perused these papers, I will send you the others.“ He pleases some, but he disgusts others.When this pronoun is joined to nouns, either singular or plural, it has no variation : as, “ the other man,' other men.”

The following phrases may serve to exémplify the indefinite pronouns.

Some of you are wise and good ;” “ A few of them were idle, the others industrious; u Neither is there any that is unexceptionable ;" “ One ought to know one's own mind ;" “ They were all present;" « Such is the state of man, that he is never at rest;" “ Some are happy, while others are miserable."

The word another is composed of the indefinite article prefixed to the word other.

None is used in botli numbers : as, “ None is so deaf as he that will not hear;" “ None of those are equal to these:” It seems originally to have signified, according to its derivation, not one, and therefore to have had no plural; but there is good authority for the use of it in the plural numNone that

go unto her return again.” Prov. ii. 19. Terms of peace were none vouchsaf'd." MILTON. “ None of them are varied to express the gender.” None of them have different endings for the numbers.” Lowth's Introduction. None of their productions are extant.” BLAIR.

We have endeavoured to distinguish, and explain the nature of the adjective pronouns; but it is difficult to divide them in an exact and unexceptionable manner. Some of them, in particular applications, might have been differently classed ; but it is presumed that, in general, the distribution is tolerabiy correct. All the pronouns, except the personal and reative, may indeed, in a general view of them, be considered as definitive pronouns, because they define or ascertain the extent of the common name, or geteral term, to which they ref r or are joined ; but as each class of them does this, m re or less exactly, or in a mana per peculiar to itself, a division adapted to this circuit


ber : as,

« PreviousContinue »