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of the interests of religion, the House was ought to be instituted into the matict. called upon to interfere and to take care He was satisfied, in regard to the church that the basis of the church was as broad and its welfare, that to parrow the base aud solid as duty to God and the welfare was not the best method of securing the of the state would allow. The Right superstructure. The categories (as we Reverend Prelate had done what, till his understood bis Lordship) of the Right time, had not been attempted since the Reverend Prelate, he considered to be Reformation. He strove to straiten and clearly most impolitic. While he (Lord narrow the basis of the church, aud the Harrowby) was disposed to vote for the speech he had made shewed that those reading and laying ou the table of the who wished for the peace and security of petition, he was far from pledging himself the country, ought either to put an end to support the proposed address. to the practice he had begun, or at least The LORD CHANCELLOR thought it to institute au inquiry into its legality and would be a mosi extraordinary evurse policy. The Right Reverend Prelate ob- for their Lordships to take, to refuse 10 jected to the extraordinary interference allow the petition to lie on the table, aud of the House, yet he himself, day after yet not to reject it, but permit it to be day, had sat with exemplary patience to read. If the noble Earl who had spoken support a Bill of Pains and Penalties last saw nothing in this petition which against the first subject of the realm, on made it improper to be received, or to be the ground that the ordinary law did not allowed to lie upon the table, ftaking it reach the case. Here the ordinary law to be a general representation of the sendid not reach the case, yet he coutended tinents entertained by the gentlemen that there was no remedy but through a who had signed it,) it appeared to hiin Convocation. As to the power of Conro. (the Lord Chancellor) that it ought to be cation, it was unquestionably a very permitted so tu be read and laid on the pretty power to be read of in books; but table, whether theis Lordships should God forbid that he (Lord Holland) or any choose to found any ulterior measure man should live to see the day when it upon it or not. Avd such a proposition should be again exercised in this king. he was himself inclined, therefore, to dom,

support. But if it was intended, by JayLord CALTHORPE contended that the ing the petition on their cable, to imply mode of proceeding adopted by the Right any censure on the Right Reverend PreReverend Prelate closed all those open- late, whose conduct it called in quesings in the Thirty-nine Articles purposely tion, he (the Lord Chancellor) would left for the scruples of conscientious vote against it, even in that stage of the minds. He thought it most desirable for question. He could not see how the the welfare, and most essential to the Right Reverend Prelate, ivdeed, could go peace, of the country and the interests of on to the subscription, without previous the clergy, that this House should ex. examination. In voting that the petipress its decided reprobation of the course tion should lie on the table, he (the which had been pursued by the Right Lord Chancellor) desired not to be underReverend Prelate. (Hear.) He did hope, stood as imputing any blame to the Right that their Lordships by their vote of that Reverend Prelate. evening, whatever it might be, would The petition was then read, and order. make it clearly understood that they ed to lie on the table. would not lend their high sanction to a Lord Dacre then observed, he had inproceeding, more menacing and more fa. tended to have followed up the last moial to the prosperity of the church, than tion, by moring an address to the Crown any which had ever been ventured on by on that subject ; but from what the noble any other Prelate, since the period at and learned Lord on the woolsack, and which the reformation of our religion was other learned Lords, had said, it was clear effected. (Hear.)

that he (Lord Dacre) should find much The Earl of HARROWBY said, that as difficulty and opposition if he persevered he had, on the last occasion of this sub- in his intentiou. He was therefore inject's being agitated, voted that the peri- clined to substitute for it a motion " that tion should not be laid upon the table, he this petition be referred to a Committee felt anxious now to explain the grounds to consider the matter thereof." upon which he should now be disposed The LORD CHANCELLOR having exto give a contrary vote. The allegations plained the terms on which he would which the petition contained appeared to consent that the petitiou be laid ou the hc of the grarest character; and, looking table, would only say that he could not to the high and important interests which consent to this motion. snight be in somc sort affected by them, The question being put, he did think that some further inquiry The Earl of CARNARVON could not is. press his astonishment on finding, that prepared. Mr. Buxton added, that wishwhen so important a subject as this was ing, if possible, to avoid introducing the brought before the house, the bench of discussion of such a subject into the Right Reverend Prelates had not declared House of Commons, he had not yet comin words-no, nor by a nod-nor eren plied with the request of these two genby a gesture, whether they meant, to a tlemen. He had felt desirons, also, mau, to sanction or condemn the con. that their petitions should be considered duct of their Right Reverend Brother in the first place, in thc House of Lords, (Hear, and a laugh.) Usually those Re- where the Right Reverend Prelate might verend Prelates were not backward in have the opportunity of vindicating himexpressing their opinions on subjects self from the allegations they contained. comparatively unimportant. They had That discussion having since come on, he long been in the habit of attending, and (Mr. Buxton) did hope that what had very regularly, the discussions of their been said by their Lordships might have Lordships ; but whether for mere orna- the effect of inducing the Bishop to rement and appearance, or for any more consider the subject in question, and to useful purpose, their conduct on this return to that which had now for so long evening might possibly decide. Could a period been the practice of the Estatheir Lordships see with indifference a blished Church. If, however, the conBench of Bishops thus sitting in timid duct of the Right Reverend Prelate should silence ? Was it not almost a desertion disappoint these hopes, Mr. Buxton said, of those whom it was the bounden duty he should consider it his duty to call the of those Right Reverend Prelates to in- attention of the House to this matter at struct ? On any great constitutional an early period of the next session."] question, particularly a year or two ago, they formerly could not complain that either the noble and learned Lord on the

HOUSE OF COMMONS, woolsack, or those Right Reverend PreJates, were slow to give the House the

JULY 31, 1822. benefit of their wisdom and experience.

Marriage Act. But here, on a question of church policy, Mr. BUTTERWORTH wished to call the both were silent. That the Right Reve. attention of an honourable and learned rend Prelates had come down to vote one Member (Dr. Phillimore) to a clause in way or other, was evident enough ; but the new Marriage Act, which seemed 10 the grounds upou which their votes were him to involve considerable difficulty. to proceed, their Lordships were not to There were sects of Disseuters who did learn. What would the public think, not baptize their children until they bewhen it was informed, that of the very came adult, and in fact there were promany Reverend Prelates who had come bably a great many persons in the country down that night to the House, not one who, acting under their peculiar principle, was to be found who had a single word were never baptized at all. Now such to offer upon the subject before their individuals would be placed in a situation Lordships ? (Hcar.)

of great inconvenience by that part of the Strangers were then excluded from bc- new Marriage Act which went to provide low the bar.

that no person should be married withoạt On our re-admission, we found the producing a register of his baptism. numbers be (on the question of refer- Dr. PhilliMORE begged to be distinctly ring the petition 10 a Committee)- understood as having had nothing to do

Contents, 19; Non-coutents, 58. Ma. with thc clause to which the honourable jority against the motion, 39.

Member adverted. The clause had been

inserted in the Upper House : if he (Dr. [The ahore subject has been introduced Phillimore) had framed it, it certainly into the House of Commons also, as ap- would not have stood in its present shape. pears from the following paragraph in For the benefit of such persons as were ihe Times of Friday, June 28 :m“ Wc unable to produce registers, there was, understand that, after a division which however, a saving provision in the Act : took place in the House of Commons on where it appeared that the register of Weduesday night last, and before the re- baptism could not be obtained, the Suradmission of strangers into the gallery, rogate might be satisfied by an afidavit Mr. Fowell Buxron stated, that he had from any sufficient person, that the party been desired some time since to present unregistered was really twenty-one years two petitions from very respectable clergy- of age. That provision he (Dr. Phillimen of the diocese of Peterborough, com- more) apprehended was enough to replaining of the conduct of their Bishop, move the difficulty which the honourable with respect to the eighty-seven questions Member (Mr. Butterworth) complained which that Right Reverend Prelate -had of; but he personally knew nothing of the clause in question, and could only which the prisoners were tried. BENJA refer the honourable Member for farther MIN CONSTANT seems to have been partiinformation to the noble Lord above, who cularly aimed at, but he has defied and, had taken part in framing it.

as yet, repelled the malice of his persecus Mr. BUTTERWORTH was obliged by the tors. One act of the French government answer of the honourable and learned has excited great attention in England : geutleman (Dr. Phillimore) : he had we feel so strongly upon the subject, tha: merely asked the question in order to set we are constrained in prudence to couthe public mind at rest upon the point. tent ourselves with recording the fact Many persons had been seriously uneasy without a comment. Our friend and as to the effect of the clause.

correspondent, Mr. JOHN BOWRING, has.

been arrested by order of the governinent, FOREIGN.

and thrown into prison. He was on the

point of embarking at Calais for England, The news from the continent of Eu- when a telegraphic dispatch ordered his rope has been of late various and contra- detention and the seizure of his papers. dictory. The Greeks are still struggling He was the bearer of dispatches from the with their oppressors, and have obtained Portuguese Ambassador al Paris to the some decided advantages in the Morea Portuguese Ambassador at London ; and and at sea. Spain has been agitated it is conjectured that his arrest was comwith insurrections of the party who are manded for the sake of procuring these for restoring Absolute Monarcliy and the

documents. He had about him, likewise, Inquisition : strange delusion ! to be ex.

as we suppose every Englishman bas who plained only by the yet remaining influ

returus from France, certain private letence of the Priesthood in that land of the ters, of the contents of which he knew Faithful. These mad attempts to plunge nothing. For having these in his posthe country back into superstition and session, he has been accused of being the despotism have generally failed, and the bearer of “ a treasonable corresponfailures will, it is to be hoped, strengthen dence.” At first, his confinement was the hands of the Cortes and of the friends

au secret, but we rejoice to hear that the of the new. Constitution. There is exter- severity of his prosecutors has been renal quiet, but deep dissatisfaction in cently relaxed. 'It remains to be seen FRANCE. The press is shackled beyond whether he will be brought to trial : if all recent example, and the prisons are

he be, we anticipate, even under French crowded with persons convicted or, which law, his honourable acquittal. Our own we fear is much the same thing in France, Government seem to have done every suspected of seditious designs. The scaf- thing in their power to viudicate the folds too have streamed with blood. In rights of an English subject, and to rethe trials of the persons who have pe- lieve the distress of Mr. Bowring's family rished, the unrighteous character of the aud friends; and of friends no man living French tribunals was most glaringly and has a wider circle, or in the circle more disgustingly exhibited; uudisguised at

that from qualities of both head and heart tempts being made by the servants of the make their friendship valuable. crown to implicate some of the distin. guished friends of liberty in the plots for

CORRESPONDENCE.

Communications have been received from Messrs. Kentish ; Bransby; Bateman James ; T. C. Holland; Acton ; H. Mace; and J. Cornish : from Captain Ross : and from Ben David; au Unitarian (Maidstone) ; Euelpis ; F. B.; a Barrister (Harrowgate); and Edinburgensis.

The “ Account respecting Coventry" is not yct received.

Had R. C. (whose communication was acknowledged last month) written as an inquirer, we should probably have inserted his letter; but he could not surely expect that we should publish common-place objections to Christianity which are completely refuted in the works of West, Ditton, Sherlock, and a hundred other writers, and which are repeated in as dogmatic a manner as if they were discoveries.

We have extended the present number beyond the usual length, in order to introduce some articles of Intelligence, which, though they are no longer novelties, appear to us suitable and necessary to our work, which professes the peculiar object of registering all documents and proceedings relating to and affecting the great questiou of ecclesiastical reforın and religious liberty.

Monthly Repository.

No. CCIII.]

NOVEMBER, 1822.

[Vol. XVII.

are

up

ITALIAN REFORMATION.
Select Memoirs of Italian Protestant Confessors.

No. II.

Bernard Ochinus.* "THI

THE whole life of Ochin was a purity, and spoke it, in his public

paradox.” Such is the state- discourses, with a fluency and a force ment with which a Catholic writer of eloquence which charmed and capcommences his memoir of this cele- tivated his hearers. Early in life he brated person ; t and certainly, if we became a monk of the order of St.

to receive as credible all that Francis, and took the habit of the has been related of him by friends and Cordeliers. In 1534 he exchanged his enemies, among Catholics and Protes- habit for that of the Capuchins. This tants, his character will appear to be was a reformed branch of the same made of the most discordant quali- order, who pretended to observe the ties that ever were found united in rule of St. Francis with greater strictthe same individual; for he is alter- ness, and derived their name from the nately represented as the greatest and long and pointed form of their hoods, the weakest of men, the most exem- which, they maintained, bore the nearplary saint, and the most profligate est resemblance to that which had sinner, a zealous and devoted confes- been worn by St. Francis himself. sor in the cause of truth, and the most Beza and others, with unaccountable shuffling prevaricator and hypocrite; inaccuracy, have represented Ochin an angel of light and a fiend of dark- as the founder of the Capuchins; but ness; novus Satan et filius tenebra- this honour, whatever it may be, be.'

longs to a fanatical monk of the name Bernard Ochin was a native of Sic of Matthew de Bassi, who was shortly enna, in Tuscany, where he was born joined by a man of greater talent, about the year 1487, Of his parents Louis de Fossombrone, who chiefly nothing certain is known : it is pro- contributed to the final establishment bable that they were of a humble con- of the order. The Capuchins made dition in life, as the son appears to their first appearance in 1525; the have enjoyed few advantages of early order was confirmed by a Bull of Cleeducation, and evidently owed his ad- ment the Seventh in 1528; and they vancement and celebrity to his per- are reckoned to have been three hunsonal conduct, and the native force of dred in number by the year 1534, his extraordinary genius. He seems when Ochin took their habit.* to have known but little of Latin. Ochin observed the rules of his orOf his native tongue he was an accom- der with exemplary strictness, and by plished master, wrote it with great the austerity of his manners, and the

sanctity of his life, secured universal

rum.

* This name is variously spelt. In Latin writers it is commonly written Ochinus, * See a curions little work intituled, sometimes Occhinus, and occasionally “ La Guerre Séraphique, ou Histoire Ocellum. In the title-pages of his Italian des Perils qu'a courus La Barbe des Caworks it is printed uniformly Ochino. puchius par les violentes Attaques des The name is abbreviated from Occhiolino, Cordeliers. La Haye, 1740." Under which is a diminutive of Occhio, an eye, this quaint title the author has published and has the same meaning as the Latin an account of the rise and establishment Ocellum, “ a little eye.” By French of the Capuchins, with the view of corwriters it is written Okin.

recting the mistakes and exposing the + Lamy, Histoire du Socinianisme, p. extravagances of Boverius, the professed 229.

annalist of the order. 4

VOL, XVII.

esteem and veneration. As a preach- and discretion as to raise it very coner his fame spread throughout all siderably in the public estimation, and Italy, and his popularity was un- to obtain for himself the title of its bounded. “He was held in such high second founder. After having held estimation,” says a Catholic writer, the office with distinguished reputa“ that he was considered the best tion for three years, he was again, in preacher in all Italy, who, by a won- 1541, at a chapter held at Naples, derful delivery and Auency of speech, elected to the generalship. On this turned the minds of his hearers as he occasion he evinced great reluctance pleased, and this the more particularly to re-accept the honour. His reasons because his life harmonized with his for wishing to decline it have been doctrine.”

."* Some have affirmed that variously represented. Some have he was preacher and father confessor thought that his reluctance was merely to the Pope, but the assertion seems assumed; but others have conjectured, to rest on insufficient evidence. that it was occasioned by conscientious

In 1538, at a chapter held at Flo- scruples respecting the faith of the rence, he was chosen, by an unani. Roman Church, which he would be mous vote, the general of his order, thus pledging himself to defend. It which he ruled with so much ability is certain that during his residence

at Naples at this period he formed

an intimacy with Valdesso and Peter • Boverius, as quoted by Bayle, Art. Martyr, who had embraced some of Ochinus. Bayle gives the following ac. the leading tenets of the Reformers, count of Ochin from the Bishop of Ame- and were actively engaged in making lia's Life of Cardinal Commendon :-“His proselytes. That from his conversaold age, his austere way of living, the tions with them, or by the perusal of rough garment of a Capuchin, his long the writings of the Reformers which beard, which reached below his breast, they put into his hands, his confidence his grey hairs, his pale and lean face, a in the truth of his own system was certain appearance of a weak constitu- shaken, is highly probable. He did tion

very artfully affected, the opinion of not then, however, give any public his holiness, which was spread all around, evidence of a change in his opinions, made him be looked upon as a very extraordinary man. Not the common peo- but after some hesitation and resistple only, but even the greatest lords and ance, suffered himself to be reinstated sovereign princes revered him for a saint. in his office as general of the CapuWhen he visited them, they used to go chins. and meet him with the greatest demon- In the year following (1542) he strations of love and esteem imaginable; was, at the earnest solicitation of the and waited upon him after the same inhabitants, appointed to preach at manner, when he went away.. For his Venice, during the season of Lent. part, he made use of all the artifices that in the sermons which, on this occacould support the good opinion men had sion, he delivered to crowded audiof him. He always walked on foot in his journeys, and though he was old, and tories, composed not merely of the of a weak constitution, he was never

common people, but including many seen on horseback. When princes obliged of the nobility; it is stated that he him to lodge at their palaces, neither the introduced many things which appearstateliness of the buildings, nor the maguifi. ed to some of his hearers to be at cent dresses, nor all the pomp of this world, variance with the doctrine of the Rocould make him abate any thing of his man Church. Fortunately for the usual poverty, nor omit the least mortifica- preacher, the Inquisition was not yet tion required by the statutes of his order. established at Venice, where it was At entertainments he would never eat

not admitted till after the Council of but of one sort of meat, and even of the Trent. But the Pope's Nuncio having coarsest and most common, hardly any wine. He was desired to lie received intimation of the obnoxious on very good beds, richly adorned, to words, suinmoned him to appear to refresh himself a little of the fatigues of render an explanation of his conduct, his journeys; but he would only spread As Ochin had spoken in vague and his cloak upon the ground and lie on it. general terms, no specific accusation The reputation he gained and the ho- could be proved against him, and he nours he received throughout all Italy easily succeeded in inaking his peace. are incredible.”

A few days subsequently to this inter

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