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1. Of number; as Once, twice, thrice, &c.
2. Of order; as First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, fifthly, lastly, finally, &c.
3. Of place; as, Here, there, where, elsewhere, anywhere, somewhere, nowhere, herein, whither, hither, thither, upward, downward, forward, backward, whence, hence, thence, whithersoever, &c.
4. Of time.
Of time past; as, Already, before, lately, yesterday, heretofore, hitherto, long since, long ago, &c.
Of time to come; as, To-morrow, not yet, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward, by and by, instantly, presently, immediately, straightway, &c.
Of time indefinite; as, Oft, often, oftimes, oftentimes, soon, seldom, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, always, when, then, ever, never, again, &c.
5. Of quantity; as Much, little, sufficiently, enough, abundantly, &c.
6. Of manner, or quality; as, Wisely, foolishly, justly, unjustly, quickly, slowly, &c.—Adverbs of quality are the most numerous kind; and they are generally formed by adding the termination ly to an adjective or participle, or changing le into ly; as, Bad, badly; cheerful, cheerfully; able, ably; admirable, admirably,
7. Of doubt; as, Perhaps, peradventure, possibly, perchance.
8. Of affirmation; as, Verily, truly, undoubtedly, doubtless, certainly, yes, yea, surely, indeed, really, &c.
9. Of negation; as, Nay, no, not, by no means, not at all, in no wise, &c.
10. Of interrogation; as, How, why,wherefore, whither,&c.
11. Of comparison; as, More, most, better, best, worse, worst, less, least, very, almost, little, do like, &c.
Adverbs of affirmation, negation, and interrogation, often stand unconnected with any
portion of a sentence; as, yes, no, why, &c. In such cases they do not perform their accustomed office of qualifying, and may be styled independent adverbs.
Besides the adverbs already mentioned, there are many which are formed by a combination of several of the prepositionswith the adverbs of place, here, there and where; as, Hereof, whereof, thereof; hereto, thereto; whereto; hereby, thereby, whereby; herewith, therewith, wherewith; hereon, therein, wherein; therefore.(i. e. there-for) wherefore. (i. e. where-for) hereupon, or hereon, thereupon, or thereon, whereupon, or whereon, &c.
In some instances the preposition suffers no change, but becomes an adverb merely by its application; as, when we say, He rides about: They came after the service had commenced.
There are also some adverbs, which are composed of nouns and the article a; as, Aside, athirst, afoot, ahead, asleep, aboard, ashore, abed,afloat,&c.
The words when and where, and all others of the sąme nature, such as, whence, whither, whenever, wherever, &c. may be properly called conjunctive adverbs, because they participate the nature both of adverbs and conjunctions, of conjunctions, as they conjoin sentences; of adverbs, as they denote the attributes either of time or of place.
It may be particularly observed with respect to the word therefore, that it is an adverb, when, without joining sentences, it only gives the sense, for that reason. When it gives that sense and also connects, it is a conjunction; as, He is good, therefore he is happy. The same observation may be extended to the words consequently, accordingly, and the like. When these are subjoined to and, or to if since, &c. they are adverbs, the connection being made without their help; when they appear single and unsupported by any other connective, they may be called conjunctions.
It may be asked, what necessity is there for adverbs of time, when verbs are provided with tenses to show that circumstance? The answer is, though tenses may be sufficient to denote the greater distinctions of time, yet, to denote them all by the tenses would be a perplexity without end.
What a variety of forms must be given to the verb, to denote yesterday, to-day, to-mor-row, formerly, lately, just-now, now, inmediately, preseutly, soon, hereafter, &c. It was this consideration which made the adverbs of time necessary.
OF PREPOSITIONS. Prepositions serve to connect words with one another and show the relation between them.
To show the relation between words, is to express their situation with respect to each other; to show what connexion subsists between them; or what reference they have to one another; as,. This is the house of my father. Here the preposition of expresses the relation between house and father. The relation which it expresses is that of property or possession. But prepositions much more frequently express the relation between verbs and nouns, than between two nouns; as, I am in health: He sleeps in peace: They are
greatly esteemed by their friends: He labors with diligence.
In all these examples, the preposition shows the relation, not between two objects, but between the being, state of being, or action, which the verb expresses, and the object which follows it; or, in other words, between the verb and the noun.
It may be remarked that the preposition of, commonly shows the relation between two nouns or objects; all other prepositions do, in general, show the relation between a verb and a noun, or some word which supplies the place of a noun.
Prepositions often seem to show the relation between two nouns or objects, when in fact they show the relation between an action and an object; as,
I went from Boston to New-York. In this example, the preposition to might be thought to express the relation between the two nouns. But it in reality shows the relation between the verb went and the latter noun; as will be evident by changing the order of the sentence: From Boston I went to New-York. It will be easily seen that there is no particular relation between the two places; but the relation is between the places and the act of going: I go from one, and I go to the other; and it is the relation which the act of going has to each place, which the prepositions are made to express. The relation which the act of going has to Boston, is altogether different from that which it has to New-York; and as the relations are entirely different, two prepositions, of an entirely opposite meaning, are made use of to express them.
In regard to the former, the relation of the act to the place respects merely its relinquishment; in regard to the latter, its approximation,
The following is a list of the principal prepositions. into above
after within below
about for without between behind
beneath with under
upon in through beyond
among Verbs are often compounded of a verb and preposition; as, To uphold, to invest, to overlook. This composition sometimes gives a new sense to the verb; as, To understand, to withdraw, to forgive.
One great use of prepositions in English, is to express those relations which in some languages are chiefly marked by cases, or the different endings of nouns. If we say, He writes a pen; they ran the river; the tower fell the Greeks; there is observable in each of these expressions,either a total want of connexion, or a connexion which produces falsehood or nonsense; and it is evident, that before they can be turned into sense, the vacancy must be filled up by some connecting word; as, He writes with a pen; they ran towards the river; the tower fell upon the Greeks. We see by these instances, how prepositions may be necessary to connect those wɔrds, which in their signification are not naturally connected.
Prepositions, in their orginal and literal acceptation, seem to have denoted relations of place; but they are now used figuratively to express other relations.
The importance of the prepositions will be fur. ther perceived by the explanation of a few of them.
of denotes possession or belonging, an effect or consequence, and other relations connected with