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dishonesty has compelled him to abandon. fieri Thenard's experiments on the oxyge. He knows that, even to be tolerated, lie, nated acius ? Oersted's and Berzelius's on in ust possess that perfect purity of pro- the radicals of the earths? Balard's and nunciation, and grace of delivery, which Serulias's on the combination of brome, belong not to the ignorant and the vulgar; and a hundred other splendid trains of aud consequently, even in the lowest chae research in that fascivating science ? Nor racters of the drama, we never see in need we stop here. There are, indeed, few France any of those wretched animals, who sciences which would not furnishi matter offend our eyes and hurt our cars in Horatio; for similar remark.” and all the other parts which, in the lan- Such are the statements recently prguage of our green-rooms, are described blished by Mr. Herschel, whose range of as second-rate. In France no person is scientific acquirenients is at present unconsidered to have a prescriptive right to rivalled in this country. Like the other the first line of characters. The actors writers, who have touched upon the state there forın a society, in which all are equal, of our science, it was introduced by him and in which ño man can rise to eminence, only as an incidental topic, to which the except by the gradual exhibition of power bearings of his subject had casually led. in the various parts which are succes- These casual and incidental notices, as sively committed to his charge. The they appeared only in scientific works, actresses, 'too-(we will not dwell upon which were perhaps not known even by their character, for in all countries that name to those who rule over the destinies must naturally be the same)-are for the of England, were not likely to attract atten. like reasons, elegant and fascinating tion, or to excite discussion. An appeal, ereatures. A clumsy Celimene would be however, of a more formal kind, has been hooted from the stage; an ill-made Suzon, at length made from the chair of Newton, and an ugly Hortense, wonld share the and from the pen of his successor, Mr. samie fale; and an Elwire that spoiled the Babbage, whose varied and profound acverses of Molière by a provincial vul- qnirements fitred him in a peculiar manner garity of pronunciation, would be sacri- for such a task. A mathematician of the Hced forth with to the offended dignity of first order, a learned natural philosopher, Thalia. From the intimate connexion and the inventor of one of the most extrawhich always exists between effect and ordinary machines that ever proceeded cause, the actresses there live in the most from the sagacity of man, he has had oclearned and polished society of the literary casion to be intimately acquainted with capital of Europe. The soirées of Made the present condition of the arts as well as moiselle Mars are the most recherchées the sciences of his country. Let us hope things in the world. There is more genius his “ Reflections” will excite that seriouş in her assemblies, than in half the king- consideration and attention to which they doms of Europe. All persons of rank and are so justly entiiled. Among the causes vame in the world of letters must find which have led to the decline of science in themselves in her salon, and any drama, England, Mr. Babbage enumerates, the in wbich she is to perform, excites, long lack of substantial encouragement exbefore its production, the most intense tended to its cultivators. Were we to interest.
take a retrospect of the honours which have been conferred by princes, on those illustrious individuals, by wliose labours
the temple of modern science has been INGRATITUDE OF ENGLAND TO reared, we should perceive that England HER SCIENTIFIC MEN..
holds a very subordinate place. Her liberality to Newton is the only striking instance we should be able to adduce, bem
cause it is the only one in which the ho“In England, whole branches of continental
nour of a title was combined with an ade. discovery are unstudied, and, indeed, al- quate pecuniary reward. Sir W. Herschel, most unknown, even by nạme. It is in indeed, was made a Hanoverian knight, vain to conceal the welancholy truth. We and Sir Humphry Davy, a baronet, but are fast dropping behind. In mathema- the comforts which these distinguished tics we have long since "drawn the rein, men enjoyed, and the stations which they and given over a bopeless race. In chemistry the case is not much better. Who f.om the sovereign nor from the nation,
occupied in society, were neither derived can tell us anything of the salpho-salts? No monument has been reared to their Who will explain to us the laws of ismorphism? Nay, who among us has ever veri memory, and no honours have descended
to their families. Nor are these the only Abridged from the Quarterly Review.–No. instances of vational ingratitude. The LXXXVI.
inventive genius of Wollastov, and the talents and literature of Yonng, have The vacancies which take place in this passed like a meteor from our sight. No body are supplied by the majority of title of honour has illustrated their name, suffrages, and in the case of ordinary and and no tribute of affection has been pro. associate members, the royal approbation nounced over their grave, He who buckled is necessary to complete the election. on the weak arm of a man of power or Political motives have, we believe, selgigantic energy; who tanght his species dom, if ever, influenced these elections ; to triumph over the inertia of matter, and and our readers have only to look at the to withstand the fury of the elements, list of its members a list crowded with who multiplied the resources of the state, inmortal names to be satisfied of the and pourred into the treasury the springó truth of this statement. tide of its wealth--the immortal Watt, The sixty-three ordinary members of the was neither acknowledged by his so- academy receive each an annual pension vereign, nor honoured by his ministers, from government of one thousand five por embalmed among the heroes and sages hundred francs, and the two secretaries of his country,
six thousand franes each. A considerable Of all the kingdoms of Enrope, France number of these members, from the secis undoubtedly the one in which the scien- tions of geometry, mechanics, astronomy, titic establishments bave been regulated and navigation, compose the board of by the most enlightened and liberal princi- longitude, and receive a handsome adples, and in which science is most success- ditional salary; others hold situations in fully cultivated, This high distinction the University of France, in the Royal she owes to the formation of the institute, Observatory, in the Polytechnic School, which consists of four different academics, in the Jardin des Plantes, in the School of viz.--the French Academy ; the Royal Mines, and in the School of Roads and Academy of Inscriptions and Belles. Bridges ; in a word, the members of the Lettres ; the Royal Academy of the Fine academy may be considered as placed in Arts; and the Royal Academy of Sciences opulent circumstances, and being freed - which alone comes under our notice. It froin all the anxieties of professional lais composed as follows:-:
bour, are enabled to pursue their scientific
inquiries in the calm of seclusion and doMathematical Sciences.
mestic life.. Nor, in her generous care Corresponding for the respectability and comfort of her
seientific men, has France overlooked the Geometry Mechanics
most powerful stimulus of genius and in6
dustry. All the hononrs of the state have Astrononiy
been thrown open to her philosophers and Geography and Navi
literary characters. The sage and the gation
3 General Physics (Nat.
hero deliberate in the same cabinet ;
they are associated among the privyPhilosophy)
councillors of the king ;-they sit together
in her house of peers and in her chamber 27
37 Physical Sciences.
of deputies ;-they bear the same titles ;
they are decorated with the same orders, Chemistry
and the arm and the mind of the nation Mineralogy
are thus indissoluby united for its glory or Botany
10 for its defence. Rural Economy, and
“ If we analyze the list of the lostitute,” Veterinary Art
10 says Mr. Babbage, “ we shall find few - Anatomy and Zoology 6
who do not possess titles or decorations ;" Medicine and Surgery 6
but as the value of such marks of royal
favour must depend, in a great measure, 63 100 on their freqnency, I shall mention several Associate Members
particulars, which are probably not familiar to the English reader :
The following sums are annually voted by the French government :- .
1,650.000 69,000 For the establishments of the fine arts
18,875 For artists and literary men
2,491 000 103,791 The first of these sums is, we believe, divided between the four academies. Those who gain one of the great prices for the fine arts are senl to Rome, and supported at the public expense.
i In the same year to which these details When the eldest and the most illustrious more particularly refer, the biennial ex- of our sages have been thus neglected, hibition of the national industry of France need we inquire into the condition of those took place; on which occasion the king younger men who are destined to succeed conferred the decorations of the Legion of them? Need we ask what mark of reHonour on trelre of the most distinguished spect has been conferred upon Brown, artisans, and adjudged forty-eight medals the first botanist of the age ;-00 Herschel, of gold, thirty-nine of silver, and two hun- the morning star of our science;-on Bab dred and seveuteen of bronze, in all four bage, the inventor of a machine which hundred and four medals. The influence seems to be actuated with almost intelof such liberality on the progress of the lectual power ;-on Kater, Barlow, Chrisarts does not require to be pointed out. tie, and South, who have extended the How different a picture England pre- boundaries of physical science ;-09
There is not at this moment, with Thomson, Ilenry, and Faraday, who have in the British isles, a single philosopher, shone in the field of chemical discovery ; however eminent have been his services, or on Murdoch and Heury Bell, who who bears the lowest title that is given to first introduced into actual use the two the lowest benefactor of the pation, or to greatest practical inventions of modern the humblest servant of the crown !
times? Of the two last it has been the There is not a single philosopher who fortune of Mr. Murdoch to rise to wealth enjoys a pensiou, or an allowance, or a and consideration in the field of com. sinecure, capable of supporting him and mercial enterprise; but Henry Bell has his family in the humblest circumstances ! been preserved from starvation only by
There is not a single philosopher who the private contributions of his fellow. enjoys the favour of his sovereign, or the citizens. friendship of his ministers!
Were not the detail likely to prove Mr. Dalton, the most distinguished tedious, we might unfold to our readers a chemist in Britain--and the man who has series of grievances of the most afflicting given to chemistry her numerical laws, kind. We might point out English inhas been allowed to spend the Aower of ventions rejected at home and adopted his days in the drudgery of teaching the abroad. We might adduce the cases of elements of mathematics at Manchester, ingenious men, who, when denied public and has never been hononred by a sirgle aid, have exhausted upon their inventions mark of national gratitude. Mr. Ivory, their private resources, and terminated the first mathematician in England, after their days in poverty, or in prison. Every exhaustiug the vigonr of his life as a ma- day indeed we meet with the victims of thematical teacher at Marlow, has retired, our patent laws, that fraudulent lottery, as his bamblest colleagne would have which gives its blanks to genius and its done, on a superannuation, and has been prizes to knaves,-- which robs the poor allowed to spend his latter years in com- inventor of the wealth which he has either parative poverty and obscurity.
earned or borrowed, and transfers it to the
purse of the attorney-general and the keeper stitation of some of these boards, we are of the great seal of England.
not accurately informed; but we know From general observations, which are that the funds whicli auonally pass throngh calculated to make but a transient impres- their hands cannot be grealiy less than sion, we shall proceed to an examination 100,0001. They have engineers, secreó of our scientific establishments. Without taries, and treasurers, who receive good expecting that any of our philosophers salaries, and in one of the boards we beshould be cabinet ministers, or privy-coun- lieve the members are paid ; yet, by a cillors, or ambassadors, it might reasonably fatality which impends over every British have been supposed that, in a country like institution, not one of all the numerous Great Britain, a variety of her public insti- members and officers of these three tutions would have furnished ample provi. scientific boards is a man of science, or is sion for scientific men. As mistress of the even acquainted with those branches of ocean, her board of longitude should, like optics which regulate the condensation that of France, have furnished an elegant and distribution of that element wbich endowment for many of her philosophers; it is their sole business to diffuse over the her lighthouse boards, with ber immeuse deep, That grave inconveniences arise revenues, might, like the corresponding from boards thus composed is not left to board in French, lave given situations to conjecture, a striking instance having ocothers ; her boards of manufactures miglat carred in the Scottish. The inventor of a have been appropriately conducted by nien new compound lens, and of a particular who combine practical with theoretical apparatus connected with it, published an knowledge; ler mineral treasures might account of bis invention in 1811.7 Some have prottered a tithe of their produce to years afterwards, a most distinguished reward the knowledge which explored member of the Academy of Sciences them, and applied them to the arts; her brought forward the same lens and appas royal societies might have added several ratus as a new and important improves official situations, and her universities, meut in lighthouse illumination. It was beside the ordinary chairs for professional sufmitted to the most severe trials by the edncatiou, might have contained others, French lighthouse board, composed of which, while they attracted men of great some of the most eminent philosopliers name within their precincts, left them anf. and naval officers in Paris, and was found ficient leisure to peruse their researches. to be greatly superior to every other All this might have been expected in Eng- mode of illumination. It was adopted in Jand, because it is fonnd in other countries the great national lighthouse of Cordonan, less able and less called upon to be liberal and arrangements were niade for its to their philosophers.
universal introduction on the coasts of But how greatly are these expectations France. The author of the invention had disappointed! The board of longitude previously, but vainly, attempted to draw was placed under the management of the to it the attention of the engineer of the lords and secretaries of the admiralty, &c. Scottish lighthouses ; but, fortified by its &c.; under the astronomer royal, and cer- actual introduction in a foreign country, tain professors of Oxford and Cambridge; he addressed himself to the three lightunder the president and three fellows of house boards of Great Britain. and offered the royal society; and under three scien- bis gratuitons services in bringing into use tific commissioners, chosen by the admi- the new system. The Scottish lighthouse ralty, who received 100l. per annum, and board went so far as to order one of the one of whom, acting as secretary, had a lenses to be executed under the snper. salary of 3001., and 2001. additional for intendence of the inventor. The Trinity superintending the “ Nautical Almanac." board made some trials with the lens This singularly constituted board was before it was sent from London; and the abolished in 1828,--and simply, we believe, board in Dublin declined doing anything because it was considered as actually in the matter. No other step has been useless. Its failure, however, as an useful taken ; and the inability of these boards institution, arose from the very circom- to judge of the merits of the invention bas stance that it was not managed, like the prevented it from being substituted for French board, by scientific men, with those unscientific methods which are used regnlar salaries, personally responsible for on every part of the British shores. the rewards which they conferred, and The three scientific societies of Great the publications which they issued. Britain present to as many singular phases,
Great Britain possesses three_light- which we are persuaded no foreigner can house boards; riz., that of the Trinity comprehend, and of which few of our House, the Scottish Lighthouse Board, and the Board for improving the Port of
+ See the Edinburgh Transactions, vol. xi. Dublin. With respect to the exact con
p. 33. for the particulars of the following stale
countrymen are aware. They contain no pretend; but in most instànces their official situations capable of affording a emolument is small; and, when otherwise, provision even for a single philosopher; the lectures whick ure required from the prothey are constituted on a plan whicle fesser are not, perhups, in all cuses, the best necessarily throw's them under the nan- mode of employing the energies of those agement of persons little acquainted with who are capable of inventing.' science; and they are not only supported A swall number of chairs in our univerby the subscriptions of their own members, sities are certainly the only rewards which but some of them, if not all, pay taxes to are open to scientific ambition; but when government for the rooms which bold ilveir we consider how many of these have been collections, and in which their sittings are filled either from political influence, or the Jield. The Royal Society of London las personal favour of the patrons, the actual three stipendary officers, viz., the senior number considered as the rewards of emisecretary, who receives 1031. per annum; nence is greatly diminished. Mr. Babbage the junior secretary, who receives 1101., has asserted, that "the great inventions bl. being allowed for making the index of the age are not, with us at least, always to the Transactions; and a foreign secre- produced in aniversities ;' but we go much tai y, who receives 201. When we consider farther, and maintain, that the great in. the duties which belong to these offices, ventions and discoveries which have been especially the superiutendence of the made in England during the last century so Philosophical Transactions." of which trave been made withont the precincts of two volumes are published annually, we oar universities. In proof of this we have must be convinced that the secretaries re- only to recall the labours of Bradley, Dolceive an inadequate compensation for their lond, Priestley, Cavendish, Maskelyne, labours; and if they are cither pro. Rumford, Watt, Wollaston, Young, Davy, fessional men, or have the power of in- Chenevix; and among the living, to inencreasing their incoine by their literary tion the names of Dalton, Ivory, Brown, exertions, they must be considerable losers Hatchett, Pond, Herschell, Babbage, by holding their appointments. The Royal Henry, Barlow, South, Faraday, Murdoch, Irish Academy is, we believe, in the very and Christie: nor need we have any hesia same predicament; or, if a remuneration tation in aduling, that within the last fifteen is annexed to any of its offices, these years not a single discovery or invention, offices are certainly not held by men of of prominent interest, has been made in science,
onr colleges, and that there is not one man In the Royal Society of Edinburgh none in all the eight universities of Great Bris of the office-bearers receive any salary. lain who is at present known to be enThe Society, however, Irave, on three oc- gaged in any train of original research. casions liberally given a present to their
Since our scientific men then can find general secretary for liis trouble in super- no asylum in our universities, and are intending their transaetions; but this sum utterly abandoned by our government, it would vot average more than 201. or 301, may well be asked, what are their occuper annum. This institution presents some pations, and how are they saved from that interesting points of consideration. It poverty and wretchedness which have so receives nothing wliatever from govern- often embittered the peace, and broken ment, nor from the town of Edinburgh, the spirit of neglected genius? Some of por from any individual endowments. It them squeeze ont a miserable sustenance is supported wholly by the subscriptions as teachers of elementary mathematics in of its members. It pays to government, our military academies, where they submit or to the board of trustees who act for the to mortifications not easily borne by an government, an annual rent 2601. for its enlightened mind. More waste their liours apartments; and it is besides, well faxed in the drudgery of private lecturing, while for the blessed light which exhibits its not a few are toru from the fascination of meagre and pillaged collections.
original research, and compelled to waste Since our scientific bnards and insti- their strength in the composition of treas tutions contain no situations for scientific tises for periodical works and popular mien, we shall now inquire if any shelter is compilations:t Nay, so thoroughly is the afforded them within the walls of oor eight universities.* On ibis subject, Mr. Bab- pointed Secretary to the Board of Longrude, with
+ In 1817, the year before Dr. Young was aphas the following observations :
a salary of 5001. per annum, his valuable time was “ There are no situations in the state, wasted in profesional authorship, as appears froui there is no position in society, to which
the following extract of a letter to a correspondent: hope can point 10 cheer the young phi. times any account of your interesting investiga.
"I shall be most happy to receive from you at ail losopher in his laborious path. If, indeed, tions ; but do not send me any information you are be belong to one of our universities, there not prepared to have mentioned again, for I am are some few chairs in liis own alma mater, always scribbling something anonymous, and I am to which he may, at some distant period, where perhaps you would not wish them to appear