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Number of Members of the Institute of France
Total number of each Class in in the Legion of Honour.
the Legion of Honour.
, In the same year to which these details When the eldest and the most illustrions more particularly refer, the biennial ex- of our sages have been this neglected. hibition of the national industry of France need we inquire into the condition of those took place; on which occasion the king younger men who are destined to succeed conferred the decorations of the Legion of them? Need we ask what mark of reHonour on tielre of the most distinguished spect has been conferred upon Brown, artisans, and adjudged forty-eight medals the first botanist of the age ;-on Herschel, of gold, thirty-nine of silver, and two hun. the morning star of our science ;-on Babdred and seventeen of bronze, in all four bage, the inventor of a machine which hundred and four medals. The influence seems to be actuated with almost intelof such liberality on the progress of the lectual power ;-on Kater, Barlow, Chrisarts does not require to be pointed ont. tie, and Soutli, who have extended the
How different a picture England pre- boundaries of physical science ;-on sents. There is not at this moment, with Thomson, Ilenry, and Faraday, who have in the British isles, a single philosopher, shone in the field of chemical discovery ; however eminent have been his services, or on Murdoch and Heury Bell, who ,who bears the lowest title ibat is given to first introduced into actual use the two the lowest benefactor of the vation, or to greatest practical inventions of modern the humblest servant of the crown!
times? Of the two last it has been the There is not a single philosopher who fortune of Mr. Murdoch to rise to wealth enjoys a pensiou, or an allowance, or a and consideration in the field of comsivecure, capable of supporting him and mercial enterprise; but Henry Bell has his family in the humblest circumstances! been preserved from starvation only by · There is not a single philosopher who the private contributions of his fellow. enjoys the favour of his sovereign, or the citizens. friendship of his mivisters!
; Were not the detail likely to prove Mr. Dalton,' the most distinguished tedious, we might unfold to our readers a chemist in Britain--and the man who has series of grievances of the most afflicting given to chemistry her numerical laws, kind. We might point out English inhas been allowed to spend the flower of ventions rejected at home and adopted his days in the drudgery of teaching the abroad. We might adduce the cases of elements of matbematics at Manchester, ingenious men, who, when denied public and has never been honoured by a single aid, have exhausted upon their inventions mark of national gratitude. Mr. Ivory, their private resources, and terminated the first mathematician in England, after their days in poverty, or in prison. Every exhausting the vigonr of his life as a ma- day indeed we meet with the victims of thematical teacher at Marlow, has retired, our patent laws, that fraudulent lottery, as his bomblest colleagne would have which gives its blanks to genius and its done, on a superannuation, and has been prizes to knaves, which robs the poor allowed to spend his latter years in com- inventor of the wealth which he has either parative poverty and obscurity.
earned or borrowed, and transfers it to the
purse of the attorney-general and the keeper stitution of some of these boards, we are of the great seal of England.
not accurately informed; but we know From general observations, which are that the funds which auhnally pass throngli calculated to make but a transient impres- their hands cannot be greatly less than sion, we shall proceed to an examination 100,0001. They have engineers, secres of our scientific establishments. Without taries, and treasurers, who receive good expecting that any of our philosophers salaries, and in one of the boards we beshould be cabinet ministers, or privy-couinlieve the members are paid ; yet, by a cillors, or ambassadors, it might reasonably fatality which impends over every British have been supposed that, in a country like institution, not one of all the numerous Great Britain, a variety of her public insti- members and officers of these three tutions would have furnished ample provi. scientific boards is a man of science, or is sion for scientific mien. As mistress of the even acquainted with those branches of ocean, her board of longitude should, like optics which regulate the condensation that of France, have furnished an elegant and distribution of that element wbich endowment for many of her philosophers; it is their sole business to diffuse over the hier lighthouse boards, with her immeuse deep. That grave inconveniences arise revenues, might, like the corresponding from boards thus composed is not left to board in French, have given situations to conjecture, a striking instance having ocothers; her boards of mamufactures miglit cnrred in the Scottish. The inventor of a have been appropriately conducted by men new compound lens, and of a particular who combine practical with theoretical apparatus connected with it, published an knowledge; lier mineral treasures might account of his invention in 1811.7 Some have proffered a title of their produce to years afterwards, a most distinguished reward the knowledge which explored member of the Academy of Sciences them, and applied them to the arts ; her brought forward the same lens and appas roval societies might have added several ratus as a new and important improvea. official situations; and her nniversities, ment in lighthouse illumination. It was beside the ordinary chairs for professional submitted to the most severe trials by the edncation, might have contained others, French lighthouse board, composed of whichi, while they attracted men of great some of the most eminent philosopliers name within their precincts, left them onts and naval officers in Paris, and was found ficient leisure to peruse their researches. to be greatly superior to every other All this might have been expected in Eng. mode of illumination. It was adopted in Jand, because it is fonnd in other countries the great national lighthouse of Cordouan, less able and less called upon to be liberal and arrangements were made for its to their philosophers. .
universal introduction on the coasts of But how greatly are these expectations Frauce. The author of the invention liad. disappointed! The board of longitude previously, but vainly, attempted to draw was placed under the management of the to it the attention of the engineer of the lords and secretaries of the admiralty, &c. Scottish lighthouses; but, fortified by it's &c.; under the astronomer royal, and cer- actual introduction in a foreign country, tain professors of Oxford and Cambridge, he addressed himself to the three lightunder the president and three fellows of house boards of Great Britain and offered the royal society; and under three scien- his gratuitons services in bringing into use tific commissioners, chosen by the adini. the new system. The Scottish lighthouse ralty, who received 1001. per annum, and board went so far as to order one of the one of whom, acting as secretary, had a lenses to be executed under the snper. salary of 3001., and 2001. additional for intendence of the inventor. The Trinity superintending the “ Nautical Almanac." board made some trials with the lens This singularly constituted board was before it was sent from London ; and the abolished in 1828,-and simply, we believe, board in Dubiin declined doing anything because it was considered as actually in the matter. No other step has been useless. Its failure, however, as an useful taken; and the inability of these boards institution, arose from the very circum- to judge of the merits of the invention has stance that it was not managed, like the prevented it from being substituted for French board, by scientific men, with those inscientific methods which are used regnlar salaries, personally responsible for on every part of the British shores. the rewards which they conferred, and The three scientific societies of Great the publications which they issued... Britain present to as many singular phases,
Great Britain possesses three light, whiclı we are persuaded no foreigner can house boards ; riž., that of the Trinity comprehend, and of which few of our Honse, the Scottish Lighthouse Board, and the Board for improving the Port of,
+ See the Edinburgh Transactions, vol. xi. Dublin. With respect to the exact con- ment.
p. 33. for the particulars of the following state
countrymen are aware. They contain no pretend; but in most instàncés their official situations capable of affordiny a emolument is small; and, when otherwise, provision even for a single philosopher; the lectures which ure required from the proa they are constituted on a plan whicle lesser are not, perhups, in all cuses, the best necessarily throws them under the man- inode of employing the energies of those agement of persons little acquainted with who are capable of inventing.” science; and they are not only supported shall number of chairs in our univerby the subscriptions of their own members, sities are certainly the only rewards which but some of them, if not all, pay taxes to are open to scientific ambition; but when government for the rooms which hold their we consider how many of these have been collections, and in wbich their sittings are filled either from political influence, or the . lield. The Royal Society of London las personal favour of the patrons, the actual three stipendary officers, viz., the senior number considered as the rewards of emisecretary, who receives 105!. per annum; nence is greatly diminished. Mr. Babbage the junior secretary, who receives 1101., has asserted, that “the great inventions 51. being allowed for making the index of the age are not, with us at least, always to the Transactions; and a foreign secre- produced in universities;' but we go much tary, who receives 201. When we consider tariher, and maintain, that the great inthe duties which belong to these offices, ventions and discoveries which have been especially the superiutendence of the made in England during he last century 5. Philosophical Transactions." of which brave been made withont the precincts of two volumes are publislied annually, we our universities. In proof of this we have must be convinced that the secretaries re- only to recall the labours of Bradley; Dola ceive an inadequate compensation for their lond, Priestley, Cavendish, Maskelyne, labours; and if they are citer pro. Rumford, Watt, Wollaston, Young, Davy, fessional men, or have the power of in- Chenevix; and ainong the living, to inencreasing their incoine by their literary tion the names of Dalton, Ivory, Brown, exertions, they must be considerable losers Hatchett, Pond, Herschell, Babbage, by holding their appointments. The Royal Henry, Barlow, South, Faraday, Murdoch, Irish Academy is, we believe, in the very and Christie: nor peed we have any hesis same predicament; or, if a remuneration tation in adding, that within the last fifteen is annexed to any of its offices, these years not a single discovery or invention, offices are certainly not held by men of of prominent interest, has been made in science,
oor colleges, and that there is not one man In the Royal Society of Edinburgh none in all the eight universities of Great Bri of the office-bearers receive any salary. tain who is at present known to be enThe Society, however, Irave, on three oc- gaged in any train of original research. casions liberally given a present to their Since our scientific men then can find general secretary for liis trouble in super- no asylum in our universities, and are intending their transaetious; but this sum uiterly abandoned by nur government, it would not average more than 201, or 301, may well be asked, what are their occuper annum. This institution presents some pations, and how are they saved from that interesting points of consideration. It poverty and wretchedness which have so receives nothing wliatever from govern- often embittered the peace, and broken ment, nor from the town of Edinburgh, the spirit of neglected genius? Some of vor from any individual endowments. It them squeeze ont a miserable sustenance is supported wholly by the subscriptions as teachers of elementary mathematics in of its members. It pays to government, our military academies, where they submit or to the board of trustees who act for the to mortifications not easily borne by an government, an annual rent 2601. for its enlightened mind. More waste their hours apartments; and it is besides, well taxed in the drndgery of private lecturing, while for the blessed light which exhibits its not a few are torn from the fascination of meagre and pillaged collections.
· original research, and compelled to waste Since our scientific bnards and insti- their strength in the composition of trea tutions contain no situations for scientific tises for periodical works and popular mien, we shall now inquire if any shelter is compilations.t Nay, so thoroughly is the afforded them within the walls of oor eight universities. On this subject, Mr. Bab
+ In 1817, the year befovie Dr. Young was ap
pointed Secretary to the Board of Longruile, with has the following observations :
à salary of 5001. per annum, his valuable time was " There are no situations in the state, wasted in profesional authorship, as appears froñi there is no position in society; to whici the following extract of a letter to a corespondent: bone can point to cheer the young phi
-"I shall be most happy to receive from you at ail
times any account of your interesting investiga. losopher in his laborious path. If, indeed, tions ; but do not send me any information you are be belong to one of our nniversities, there not prepared to have mentioned ingkin, for I am are some few chairs in his own alma mater, very capable of introducing your experiments,
always scribbling something anonymous, and I am to which he may, at some distant period, where perhaps you would not wish them to appear
spirit of science subdued, and so paltry case against him closed. He requested leave
judge, in atter astonishiment, exclaimed-
my lord,' replied the foreman, that may
be: but if he did not kill the man, sıre he
gentlemen, (concluded O'Connell), you
mary measures for totally extirpating the beneath their justice. Boyle had written destructive vernin. The following means some severe things against the corporation,
were resorted to, and they were attended and his conviction, on almost any gronnds, with the most perfect success :-A pomber was anticipated by his foes and feared by of corks, coit down as thin as sixpences, his friends. The trial came on before oue were roasted or siewed in grease, and then of the indges at the assize. After many placed in the way of the rats. The dish challenges, and much difficulty, the jury was greedily devoured as a special delicacy. were empannelled. Mr. O'Connell, the and, as was anticipated, they all died of leading counsel at the Munster bar in cri. indigestion.-Puisley Advertiser. minal cases, was retained for Mr. Boyle. Graftinn Grapes. -The quickest method The evidence bore strongly against his of procuring grapes is to graft into the client although it was admitted that the body near the ground, or which is preferassault might have been accidental; and, able, into the roots of large vines. In the ()*Counell, declining to call :: buiting evi- following year, if the graft has taken, fruit dence, spoke at some length in reply to the will be produced. Thns every farmer who prosecution., Finding his appeal to justice has large vines on his ground, may, by promade little apparent way into the hearts of a curing cuttings of a hardy foreign or native Cork corporation jury, he suddenly adopt- kind, and paying a little attention to the ed the language of irony, and concluded grafting and training, be soon and amply in the following abrupt manner :-“Gen- supplied with grapes for the market or tlemen, I remember a trial at Clonmel, of wine making.- New Monthly Muguzine. a voor man on a charge of murder; a Retort Courteous.-A Russian lady, being beautiful case of circumstantial evidence- engaged to dinner with M. de Talleyrand, like what you have just now heard-was at that time minister for foreign affairs, was made up against him. The prisoner's life detained a full hour by some nexpected seemed to hang by a single tair, when the accident. The famishied guests grumbled,
and looked at their watches. On the lady's but I cannot help it-Ich only give you fair entrance, one of the company observed to warning. I have indeed very lately been entering his neighbour in Greek, " When a woman into some optical subjects pretty much at large;
i is neither yonog por liandsome, she ought but I do not think I shall resume the consideration of ihem frir a long time.” However valuable Dr. to arrive betimes.” The lady, turning round Young's compositions are yet his fame rests upon sharply, accosted the satirist in the same Juis opeical diecoveries, and science sustaiued a severe language: 66 When a woman." says she. loss by the duection of his talents to any other sub ject. His appointment to the Secretary ship of the “bas the misfortune to dine with savages, Board of Longitude did honour to the Admirally; she always arrives too soou.”-St. Maure's and had Providence spared his valuable life, we Peler: should have witnessed, in his scienuific discoveries, ibe hawpy jufluence of the leisure which it gave
PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTA. 1. To entitle a person to yote in a TION OF SCOTLAND.I.
county, he must either be the actual proprietor of a portion of land, or be must be
The feudal siperior of it-the land itself, There is scarcely a prospect in the world in this last case, being in the hands of more curious than that of England during a vassal. To afford a qualification, the a general election. The congregations of property must be very considerable. The people—the principles appealed to the whole country was valued many centuries eminent men who appear the pledges re. ago; and a freehold qualification can only quired or proffered the vicissitudes of arise from land of which it can be proved the poll- the triampbant chairing-these,
that it was then examined and found to with all the others, exhibit the most pecu
be worth forty shillings Scots a year, or liar and stirring scene that any country which is now valued by the commissioners has to show. It is a scene, in which a of supply as yearly worth 4001. Scots. person, who understands the bustle, be it is not easy to say what these ancient holds the whole practical working of the valuations depote in modern times; but constitution. He sees the majesty of the subject was very much discussed about public opinion; the responsibility of re- forty years ago ; and persons who were presentatives to constituents ; and the then deemed competent judges, estimated formation of the political virtues. It is 4001. Scots of valued rent as equivalent to impossible to behold this animating and a present yearly rent of froin 1001. to ennobling spectacle, without turning with 2001. sterling. If this was correct then, sorrow and humiliation to Scotland. This the subsequent improvement of the conn. part of the empire originally formed a try, which has increased the modern kingdom by itself; and it still retains its worth of property, while the old valuaown laws, religion, interests, feelings, and
rests, feelings, and tions remain, must have greatly increased language. It contains greatly above two the difference; so that, speaking with millions of inhabitants, who are still ra. reference to existing circumstances, the pidly increasing. It is full of generally qualification in Scotland is probably at diffused wealth. Education has for ages least thirty or forty times higher than been habitual throughout the very low. in any other part of the empire; and est ranks: The people are extremely above å hundred times beyond the general peaceable, and their character for steadic qualification in England. Besides this, ness and prudence is so remarkable, that there are two things very material to these virtues have been imputed to them be kept in view. In the first place, the as vices: Yet this is the only portion of qualification attaches merely to land, the united kipgdom which is altogether including under this word, fisheries, mines. excluded from all participation in the re- and such other things as are inseparable presentative system. It is not enough to
from land; it is not conferred upon prosay that their representation is defective. perty in houses. In the second place, not The only correct statement of the fact is, even land qualibes, whatever may be its that the people have no share whatever in extent, unless it is holden of the crown. the representation. It is needless to waste So that a person may have an estate of time in explaining how this arose ; for it 20,0001. a year, which affords him no would only lead us away from the con vote, because he holds it of a subject. sideration of the fact into historical dis- The qualification, therefore, is first high, putes; and an exact knowledge of the
knowledge of the and then it must be high within a limited origin of the evil does not facilitate its description of property. cure. The result only is certain, that The result of this is, that the whole there never has been, and, while the ex
freeholders of Scotland are fewer in nume isting system endures, there never can be. ber (we believe) than those in any English any thing resembling real representation in county:, unless, perhaps, the very smallScotland.
est. There are certainly not three counIn order to justify this statement, it is ties in England in which the freeholders only necessary to explain the circum- do not in each exceed those of all Scot. stances.
land. We cannot state their amount The only places which elect members with perfect accuracy; but, according to are the counties and certain towns. Nei- the list usually referred to, and which, we ther the universities, nor any other bodies
are confident, is not very far wrong, the or professions, possess the elective fran
total number, a few months ago, was chise. The counties return thirty mem
somewhere about three thousand two bers, the towns fifteen.
hundred and fifty-three. These chosen
few are thus distributed :+ From the Edinburgh Review.-No. CIII. Vol. VI.