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nations of Asia, the Persians, the Indians, and the Chinese. Europe has had it above a thousand years; the Spaniards have spread it over their part of America, and it begins lately to make it's appearance in these States. It is so interesting in itself as not to need the view of gain to induce engaging in it; and thence it is never played for money. Those, there fore, who have leasure for such diversions, cannot find one that is more innocent; and the following piece, written with a view to correct (among a few young friends) some little improprieties in the practice of it, shews, at the same time, that it may, in it's effects on the mind, be not merely innocent, but ad. vantageous, to the vanquished as well as the victor. The game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement Several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired or strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions. For life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is vast variety of good and ill events, which are, in some de gree, the effects of prudence or the want of it. By playing at Chess, then, we may learn,

1. Foresight, which looks a little into futurity; considers the consequences which may attend an ac tion: for it is continually occurring to the player, If I move this piece, what will be the advantage of my new situation?

What use can my adversary make of it to annoy me? What other moves can I make to support it, and to defend myself from his attacks?"

II. Circumspection, which sur: veys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action, the relations of the several pieces and situations, the


dangers they are respectively exposed to, the several possibilities of their aiding each otber, the probabilities that the adversary may make this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn it's consequences against him. III. Cauțion, not to make our moves too hastily. This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the laws of the game, such as, “ If you touch a piece, you must move it somewhere; if you set it down, you must let it stand:” and it is therefore best that these rules should be observed, as the game thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war; in which, if you bave incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more securely, but you must abide all the consequences of your rashness. And, lastly, we learn by Chess the habit of not being discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change, and that of persevering in the search of resources. The game is so full of events, there is such a variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden vicissitudes, and one so frequently, after long contemplation discovers the means of extricating one'sself from a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one is encouraged to continue the contest to the Jast, in hopes of victory by our own skill, or at least of giving a stale mate by the negligence of our adversary. And whoever considers, what in Chess he often sees instances of, that particular pieces of suc. cess are apt to produce presumption, and it's consequent inattention, by which the loss may be recover

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ed, will learni not to be too much discouraged by the present success of his adversary, nor to despair of finał good fortune, on every little check he receives in the pursuit of it.

That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others, which are not attended with the same advantages, every circumstance which may increase the pleasures of it should be regarded; and every action or word which is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is to pass the time agreeably. Therefore, first, if it be agreed to play according to the strict rules; then those rules are to be exactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one side, wbile deviated from by the other—for this is not equitable.

Secondly, If it be agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgencies, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other.

Thirdly, No false move should ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing * with a person once detected in such unfair practices.

Fourthly, If your adversary be long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or express any uneasiness at his delay. You should not sing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor inake a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing which may disturb his attention. For all these things displease; and they do not shew your skill in playing,

but your craftiness, or your rudeness. Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and deceive

your adversary, by pretending to have made bad -moves, and saying that you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless, and inattentive to your schemes: for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in the game. Sixthly, You must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nor shew too much pleasure; but endeavour to console your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with hiinself, by every kind of civil expression which may be used with truth, such as,. You understand the game better than I, but you are a little inattentive; or, you play too quickly; or, you had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favour.” Seventhly, If you be a spectator, while others play, observe the most perfect silence. For if you give advice you offend both parties; him against whom you give it, because it may cause the loss of his game; him in whose favour you give it, because, tho’it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have 'had, if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move, or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, shew, how it might have been placed better: for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or shew your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddling with, or counselling the

play of others.! Lastly, If the game be not to be played rigorously, according to the rules abovementioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulness or inattention; but point out to him, kindly, that by such a move he places or leaves a piece in danger and unsupported; that by another he will put his king in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is better, bis esteem, his respect, and his affection; together with the silent approbation and good-will of impartial spectators.


Extracts of Letters to M. Dubourg.

London, July 28, 1768. I greatly approve the epithet which you give, in your letter of the 8th of June, to the new method of treating the small-pox, which you call the tonic or bracing method; I will take occasion, from it, to mention a practice to wbich I have accustomed myself. You know the cold bath has long been in vogue here as a tonic; but the shock of the cold water has always appeared to me, generally speaking, as too violent, and I have found it much more agreeable to my constitution to bathe in another element, I mean cold air. With this view I rise early almost every morning, and sit iu my chamber with. out any clothes whatever, half au bour, or an hour,

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