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little nerves, which run backward and forward in all directions, proceeding to the brain, and produce all the pain or sensation which we feel when hurt or injured.
6. When the surgeon takes off a limb, it is not in cutting the bone—if the bone be in a healthy state—that we experience pain, but only when the third skin is cut; and it is for this reason, that it is called the true skin. When we prick ourselves with a pin or needle, we draw blood, how slight soever the wound, because the two outer skins are so thin and delicate that the third feels the touch instantaneously, and the nerves of feeling being so numerous, pass off to the spinal marrow in the spine, and thence to the brain or mind, so that we feel every touch.
7. You have probably noticed that some persons have scars on their bodies from cuts or burns, and that these remain as long as they live. This is so, because, when the third layer, or true skin, is injured in any way, it never grows again ; so when we cut or burn it, the wound may heal, but the scar will always remain. You frequently hear people say that children will “ out-grow"
They sometimes do, it is very true, disappear ; but it is when the two outer skins only are affected, that the scar will be removed; for these two skins can be formed again from the blood.
8. There are many who receive accidents when they are quite young, and though the hand, or limb, or part of the body affected, increases very much in size, yet
5. What produces pain or sensation? 6. What causes pain when a limb is cut off? Why do we feel the prick of a needle? 7. Why do scars frequently remain on the body? When do scars sometimes disappear? 8. Do not children ever "out-grow" scars ?
there will always be a scar left. There will frequently be white spots on the bodies of negroes, occasioned by wounds in the third skin, and the removal of some of the coloring matter on the second, which does not grow again.
9. Here again we see how wonderfully good our Creator was, in furnishing a covering for this part, which is so sensitive to every impression, and which, if exposed, would continually be in danger of injury at every step we take, but which is now shielded, as it were, from heat and cold, and all harm.
10. There are little cells or pores on the outer surface, which permit the sweat or perspiration to pass through; and in this way many diseases which lurk about our bodies are continually passing off. This enables us to endure the very great heat of summer ; for this constant perspiration produces a moisture which cools the air.
11. There is then one very important thing for us to do, to keep this skin in order, and what do you think it is, children? The little pores are very small, so that when there is a blister formed, and filled with water, which puffs up the cuticle, the water cannot escape through them.
That very important thing for all to remember, is, to bathe the whole body, at least once every day, that the pores may not be closed by the perspiration which
8. Why do we occasionally see white spots on the bodies of negi des? 9. How is the goodness of our Creator exhibited in the construction of the skin? 10. What is the use of the little cells on the surface of the skin? 11. What important thing have we to do? What would be the result if the pores of the skin were to close ?
CLEANLINESS OF THE SKIN.
12. It is not sufficient to follow the example of too many boys and girls, and I am afraid children of an older growth-merely to put a little water on their hands and faces ; many children would like to run off to school without doing even that: but that part of our bodies covered by clothing must be kept clean, as well
our faces and hands, if we wish to preserve our health, our life, and happiness.
13. All children can do this themselves, without troubling their parents; and if they will do it, I can assure them that they will each have a longer life and more enjoyment; for if the particles are suffered to remain on the skin we cannot breathe so well, and of course would soon become diseased.
14. If the windows of a house should never be washed, they would soon become nearly useless, and would give us very little light or pleasure. If the paint and shingles were never repaired, the house would soon fall to decay, and be unfit for us to live in ; so it would be as bad, and even worse for our house—that is, our body-if we did not repair or clean what has been called the shingles of our house, that is, the skin. The nails and hair are appendages to the skin ; the nails are formed by little layers of thin skin, and serve to protect the ends of the fingers.
15. The hair is for a covering to the skull, each hair having a little bulb or root which has a nerve of sensa-. tion. Some say that the coloring matter is contained in
12. Will it not be sufficient to wash our hands and faces only? What depends on the cleanliness of the skin? 13. Who can relieve parents of this trouble? What will be the good results ? 14. How can we apply the principle to the windows and paint of a house ? What are the nails and hair called? 15. What purpose does the hair serve ?
this little bulb; others, that it passes through the little tube in each hair. Sometimes the root decays, and then again the skin becomes diseased. In either case the hair falls off, and is dead, or has no life.
15. Has the hair any nerves ? Where is its coloring matter? When does the hair fall off 1
THE HEART AND LUNGS.
1. I WILL now tell you, children, about this curious heart of ours. You will recollect that you learned in my first lesson, that our food made blood. Suppose, then, we had bones, muscles, ligaments, skin, and stomach, but no vessel or receptacle to receive the blood when it was made.
2. Life, under such circumstances, could no more be sustained, than a steamboat could sail through the water of a thousand little streams, if it were not collected together in a river or bed of water. The heart is a double organ, and lies in the middle of the chest, with the point inclining to the left side, which gave rise to the idea that it was situated there.
The letter a is the left ventricle ; b, is the right ventricle ; c, e, f, is the great artery that proceeds from the left ventricle; g, h, i, are arteries that proceed from the great artery; k, is the artery that goes from the right ventricle to the lungs; 1, l, are branches of the artery going to the two sides of the lungs, which carry the blood there; m, m, the veins which bring the blood back from the lungs to the left side of the heart; n, is the right auricle ; o and p, are the ascending and descend
What is the subject of chapter fourth? 1. What do we need beside skin, bones, muscles, and blood ? 2. What would be the result if there was no receptacle for the blood ? Describe the heart and its situation. Explain the cut.